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  1. Abstract

    The high-luminosity upgrade of the LHC brings unprecedented requirements for real-time and precision bunch-by-bunch online luminosity measurement and beam-induced background monitoring. A key component of the CMS Beam Radiation, Instrumentation and Luminosity system is a stand-alone luminometer, the Fast Beam Condition Monitor (FBCM), which is fully independent from the CMS central trigger and data acquisition services and able to operate at all times with a triggerless readout. FBCM utilizes a dedicated front-end application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) to amplify the signals from CO2-cooled silicon-pad sensors with a timing resolution of a few nanoseconds, which enables the measurement of the beam-induced background. FBCM uses a modular design with two half-disks of twelve modules at each end of CMS, with four service modules placed close to the outer edge to reduce radiation-induced aging. The electronics system design adapts several components from the CMS Tracker for power, control and read-out functionalities. The dedicated FBCM23 ASIC contains six channels and adjustable shaping time to optimize the noise with regards to sensor leakage current. Each ASIC channel outputs a single binary high-speed asynchronous signal carrying time-of-arrival and time-over-threshold information. The chip output signal is digitized,encoded, and sent via a radiation-hard gigabit transceiverand an optical link to the back-end electronics for analysis. This paper reports on the updated design of the FBCM detector and the ongoing testing program.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  2. Abstract

    The Pixel Luminosity Telescope is a silicon pixel detector dedicated to luminosity measurement at the CMS experiment at the LHC. It is located approximately 1.75 m from the interaction point and arranged into 16 “telescopes”, with eight telescopes installed around the beam pipe at either end of the detector and each telescope composed of three individual silicon sensor planes. The per-bunch instantaneous luminosity is measured by counting events where all three planes in the telescope register a hit, using a special readout at the full LHC bunch-crossing rate of 40 MHz. The full pixel information is read out at a lower rate and can be used to determine calibrations, corrections, and systematic uncertainties for the online and offline measurements. This paper details the commissioning, operational history, and performance of the detector during Run 2 (2015–18) of the LHC, as well as preparations for Run 3, which will begin in 2022.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
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  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  9. Abstract

    A search for decays to invisible particles of Higgs bosons produced in association with a top-antitop quark pair or a vector boson, which both decay to a fully hadronic final state, has been performed using proton-proton collision data collected at$${\sqrt{s}=13\,\text {Te}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}}$$s=13TeVby the CMS experiment at the LHC, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138$$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$fb-1. The 95% confidence level upper limit set on the branching fraction of the 125$$\,\text {Ge}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}$$GeVHiggs boson to invisible particles,$${\mathcal {B}({\textrm{H}} \rightarrow \text {inv})}$$B(Hinv), is 0.54 (0.39 expected), assuming standard model production cross sections. The results of this analysis are combined with previous$${\mathcal {B}({\textrm{H}} \rightarrow \text {inv})}$$B(Hinv)searches carried out at$${\sqrt{s}=7}$$s=7, 8, and 13$$\,\text {Te}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V}$$TeVin complementary production modes. The combined upper limit at 95% confidence level on$${\mathcal {B}({\textrm{H}} \rightarrow \text {inv})}$$B(Hinv)is 0.15 (0.08 expected).

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024