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Assembled triphenylamine bis -urea macrocycles: exploring photodriven electron transfer from host to guestsAbsorption of electronic acceptors in the accessible channels of an assembled triphenylamine (TPA) bis -urea macrocycle 1 enabled the study of electron transfer from the walls of the TPA framework to the encapsulated guests. The TPA host is isoskeletal in all host–guest structures analyzed with guests 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole, 2,5-dichlorobenzoquinone and I 2 loading in single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformations. Analysis of the crystal structures highlights how the spatial proximity and orientation of the TPA host and the entrapped guests influence their resulting photophysical properties and allow direct comparison of the different donor–acceptor complexes. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy shows that upon complex formation 1·2,5-dichlorobenzoquinone exhibits a charge transfer (CT) transition. Whereas, the 1·2,1,3-benzothiadiazole complex undergoes a photoinduced electron transfer (PET) upon irradiation with 365 nm LEDs. The CT absorptions were also identified with the aid of time dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculations. Cyclic voltammetry experiments show that 2,1,3-benzothiadiazole undergoes reversible reduction within the host–guest complex. Moreover, the optical band gaps of the host 1·2,5-dichlorobenzoquinone (1.66 eV), and host 1·2,1,3-benzothiadiazole (2.15 eV) complexes are significantly smaller as compared to the free host 1 material (3.19 eV). Overall, understanding this supramolecular electron transfer strategy should pave the way towards designing lower band gap inclusion complexes.
Immobilization of molecular catalysts on solid supports via atomic layer deposition for chemical synthesis in sustainable solventsHomogeneous molecular catalysts are valued for their reaction specificity but face challenges in manufacturing scale-up due to complexities in final product separation, catalyst recovery, and instability in the presence of water. Heterogenizing these molecular catalysts, by attachment to a solid support, could transform the practical utility of molecular catalysts, simplify catalyst separation and recovery, and prevent catalyst decomposition by impeding bimolecular catalyst interactions. Previous strategies to heterogenize molecular catalysts via ligand-first binding to supports have suffered from reduced catalytic activity and leaching (loss) of catalyst, especially in environmentally friendly solvents like water. Herein, we describe an approach in which molecular catalysts are first attached to a metal oxide support through acidic ligands and then “encapsulated” with a metal oxide layer via atomic layer deposition (ALD) to prevent molecular detachment from the surface. For this initial report, which is based upon the well-studied Suzuki carbon–carbon cross-coupling reaction, we demonstrate the ability to achieve catalytic performance using a non-noble metal molecular catalyst in high aqueous content solvents. The catalyst chosen exhibits limited catalytic reactivity under homogeneous conditions due to extremely short catalyst lifetimes, but when heterogenized and immobilized with an optimal ALD layer thickness product yields >90% can be obtained in primarilymore »