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  1. Fourteen new species of chewing lice in the Brueelia-complex are described, from hosts in the Campephagidae. In addition, Malardifax a new subgenus of Guimaraesiella Eichler, 1949 is described for the species occurring on minivets (Campephagidae: Pericrocotus). The new species and their hosts are: Guimaraesiella (Guimaraesiella) nouankaoensis n. sp. from Coracina caledonica seiuncta Mayr & Ripley, 1941 and C. caledonica thilenii (Neumann, 1915); Guimaraesiella (Guimaraesiella) sphagmotica n. sp. from Coracina caeruleogrisea strenua (Schlegel, 1871) and C. caeruleogrisea adamsoni Mayr & Rand, 1936; Indoceoplanetes (Capnodella) kamphaengphetensis n. sp. from Lalage melaschistos avensis (Blyth, 1852); Indoceoplanetes (Capnodella) saucia n. sp. from Edolisoma montanum montanum (Meyer, 1874); Indoceoplanetes (Capnodella) subarcens n. sp. from Edolisoma melas melas (Lesson, 1828); Indoceoplanetes (Indoceoplanetes) cinitemnina n. sp. from Edolisoma melas melas (Lesson, 1828); Indoceoplanetes (Indoceoplanetes) ephippiformis n. sp. from Edolisoma montanum montanum (Meyer, 1874); Indoceoplanetes (Indoceoplanetes) fodincana n. sp. from Coracina papuensis oriomo Mayr & Rand, 1936, C. papuensis angustifrons (Salvadori, 1876), and C. papuensis elegans (Ramsay, 1881); Indoceoplanetes (Indoceoplanetes) incisoma n. sp. from Coracina macei siamensis (Baker, 1918) and C. macei rexpineti (Swinhoe, 1863); Indoceoplanetes (Indoceoplanetes) microgenitalis n. sp. from Coracina caeruleogrisea strenua (Schlegel, 1871); Indoceoplanetes (Indoceoplanetes) pterophora n. sp. from Coracina macei nipalensis (Hodgson, 1836); Indoceoplanetesmore »(Indoceoplanetes) saburrata n. sp. from Coracina lineata ombriosa (Rothschild & Hartert, 1905); Indoceoplanetes (Indoceoplanetes) wandoensis n. sp. from Coracina novaehollandiae melanops (Latham, 1802); and Indoceoplanetes (Indoceoplanetes) zambica n. sp. from Coracina pectoralis (Jardine & Selby, 1828). Checklists and keys to the louse species of the Brueelia-complex parasitic on campephagid hosts are provided.« less
  2. Six new species of chewing lice in the Resartor-group (Brueelia-complex) are described and illustrated. They are: Aratricerca cerata n. sp. ex Zosterops capensis Sundevall, 1850; Aratricerca macki n. sp. ex Melidectes princeps Mayr & Gilliard, 1951 and Ptiloprora perstriata perstriata (de Vis, 1898); Aratricerca madagascariensis n. sp. ex Randia pseudozosterops Delacour & Berlioz, 1931; Turdinirmoides janigai n. sp. ex Prunella collaris nipalensis (Blyth, 1843) and P. collaris fennelli Deignan, 1964; Turdinirmoides rozsai n. sp. ex Carpodacus subhimachala (Hodgson, 1836); and Timalinirmus curvus n. sp. ex Yuhina castaniceps plumbeiceps (Godwin-Austen, 1877). A key to the species of Aratricerca, Turdinirmoides and Timalinirmus is provided.
  3. We describe and illustrate eight new species of chewing lice in the genus Philopterus Nitzsch, 1818, parasitic on hosts in the bird families Cardinalidae, Chloropseidae, Hirundinidae, Icteridae, Motacillidae, Paridae, and Vangidae from China, Peru, South Africa, Thailand, and the USA. They are: Philopterus coriaceus sp. nov. from Molothrus oryzivorus oryzivorus (Gmelin, 1788); P. hebes sp. nov. from Chloropsis aurifrons inornata Kloss, 1918 and C. cochinchinensis kinneari Hall & Deignan, 1956; P. micropunctatus sp. nov. from Anthus hodgsoni Richmond, 1907; P. afropari sp. nov. from Melaniparus cinerascens cinerascens (Vieillot, 1818); P. pseudhirundo sp. nov. from Pseudhirundo griseopyga Sundevall, 1850; P. sinensis sp. nov. from Hemipus picatus capitalis (Horsfield, 1840); P. stansburyensis sp. nov. from Pheucticus melanocephalus melanocephalus (Swainson, 1827); and P. trepostephanus sp. nov. from Tephrodornis virgatus fretensis Robinson & Kloss, 1920 and T. v. mekongensis Meyer de Schauensee, 1946. Philopterus hebes sp. nov. constitutes the first record of the genus Philopterus from the Chloropseidae. We also provide some notes on the morphology and status of Cypseloecus Conci, 1941.
  4. Abstract

    Co‐parasitism is ubiquitous and has important consequences for the ecology and evolution of wild host populations. Studies of parasite co‐infections remain limited in scope, with few experimental tests of the fitness consequences of multiple parasites, especially in natural populations.

    We measured the separate and combined effects ofPhilornis seguyinest flies and shiny cowbirdsMolothrus bonariensison the fitness of a shared host, the chalk‐browed mockingbird (Mimus saturninus) in Argentina.

    Using a two‐factor experimental approach, we manipulated the presence of nest flies and cowbirds in mockingbird nests and assessed their effects on mockingbird haemoglobin levels, begging and provisioning rates, body size, and fledging success. We also monitored rates of nest predation in relation to parasitism by flies and cowbirds.

    Nest flies reduced the haemoglobin concentration, body size, and fledging success of mockingbirds, likely because mockingbirds did not compensate for parasitism by begging more or feeding their nestlings more. Cowbirds also reduced the fledging success of mockingbirds, even though they had no detectable effect on haemoglobin or body size. Nests with cowbirds, which beg more than mockingbirds, attracted more nest predators. There was no significant interaction between the effects of flies and cowbirds on any component of mockingbird fitness. The combined effects of nest flies and cowbirdsmore »were strictly additive.

    In summary, we show that nest flies and cowbirds both reduce host fitness, but do not have interactive effects in co‐parasitized nests. Our results further suggest that predators exacerbate the effects of nest flies and cowbirds on their hosts. Our study shows that the fitness consequences of co‐parasitism are complex, especially in the context of community‐level interactions.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 15, 2024
  5. Adaptive radiation is an important mechanism of organismal diversification and can be triggered by new ecological opportunities. Although poorly studied in this regard, parasites are an ideal group in which to study adaptive radiations because of their close associations with host species. Both experimental and comparative studies suggest that the ectoparasitic wing lice of pigeons and doves have adaptively radiated, leading to differences in body size and overall coloration. Here, we show that long-distance dispersal by dove hosts was central to parasite diversification because it provided new ecological opportunities for parasites to speciate after host-switching. We further show that among extant parasite lineages host-switching decreased over time, with cospeciation becoming the more dominant mode of parasite speciation. Taken together, our results suggest that host dispersal, followed by host-switching, provided novel ecological opportunities that facilitated adaptive radiation by parasites.
  6. Abstract
    <p>PLEASE CONTACT AUTHORS IF YOU CONTRIBUTE AND WOULD LIKE TO BE LISTED AS A CO-AUTHOR. (this message will be removed some time weeks/months after the first publication)</p> <p>Terrestrial Parasite Tracker indexed biotic interactions and review summary.</p> <p>The Terrestrial Parasite Tracker (TPT) project began in 2019 and is funded by the National Science foundation to mobilize data from vector and ectoparasite collections to data aggregators (e.g., iDigBio, GBIF) to help build a comprehensive picture of arthropod host-association evolution, distributions, and the ecological interactions of disease vectors which will assist scientists, educators, land managers, and policy makers. Arthropod parasites often are important to human and wildlife health and safety as vectors of pathogens, and it is critical to digitize these specimens so that they, and their biotic interaction data, will be available to help understand and predict the spread of human and wildlife disease.</p> <p>This data publication contains versioned TPT associated datasets and related data products that were tracked, reviewed and indexed by Global Biotic Interactions (GloBI) and associated tools. GloBI provides open access to finding species interaction data (e.g., predator-prey, pollinator-plant, pathogen-host, parasite-host) by combining existing open datasets using open source software.</p> <p>If you have questions or comments about thisMore>>
  7. Abstract

    Adaptive radiation occurs when the members of a single lineage evolve different adaptive forms in response to selection imposed by competitors or predators. Iconic examples include Darwin's finches, Caribbean anoles, and Hawaiian silverswords, all of which live on islands. Although adaptive radiation is thought to be an important generator of biodiversity, most studies concern groups that have already diversified. Here, we take the opposite approach. We experimentally triggered diversification in the descendants of a single population of host-specific parasites confined to different host “islands.” We show rapid adaptive divergence of experimentally evolving feather lice in response to preening, which is a bird's main defense against ectoparasites. We demonstrate that host defense exerts strong phenotypic selection for crypsis in lice transferred to different colored rock pigeons (Columba livia). During four years of experimental evolution (∼60 generations), the lice evolved heritable differences in color. Strikingly, the observed color differences spanned the range of phenotypes found among congeneric lice adapted to other species of birds. To our knowledge, this is the first real-time demonstration that microevolution is fast enough to simulate millions of years of macroevolutionary change. Our results further indicate that host-mediated selection triggers rapid divergence in the adaptive radiation ofmore »parasites, which are among the most diverse organisms on Earth.

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