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  1. Physically unclonable hardware fingerprints can be used for device authentication. The photo-response non-uniformity (PRNU) is the most reliable hardware fingerprint of digital cameras and can be conveniently extracted from images. However, we find image post-processing software may introduce extra noise into images. Part of this noise remains in the extracted PRNU fingerprints and is hard to be eliminated by traditional approaches, such as denoising filters. We define this noise as software noise, which pollutes PRNU fingerprints and interferes with authenticating a camera armed device. In this paper, we propose novel approaches for fingerprint matching, a critical step in device authentication, in the presence of software noise. We calculate the cross correlation between PRNU fingerprints of different cameras using a test statistic such as the Peak to Correlation Energy (PCE) so as to estimate software noise correlation. During fingerprint matching, we derive the ratio of the test statistic on two PRNU fingerprints of interest over the estimated software noise correlation. We denote this ratio as the fingerprint to software noise ratio (FITS), which allows us to detect the PRNU hardware noise correlation component in the test statistic for fingerprint matching. Extensive experiments over 10,000 images taken by more than 90 smartphones are conducted to validate our approaches, which outperform the state-of-the-art approaches significantly for polluted fingerprints. We are the first to study fingerprint matching with the existence of software noise. 
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  2. Reliably identifying and authenticating smart- phones is critical in our daily life since they are increasingly being used to manage sensitive data such as private messages and financial data. Recent researches on hardware fingerprinting show that each smartphone, regardless of the manufacturer or make, possesses a variety of hardware fingerprints that are unique, robust, and physically unclonable. There is a growing interest in designing and implementing hardware-rooted smart- phone authentication which authenticates smartphones through verifying the hardware fingerprints of their built-in sensors. Unfortunately, previous fingerprinting methods either involve large registration overhead or suffer from fingerprint forgery attacks, rendering them infeasible in authentication systems. In this paper, we propose ABC, a real-time smartphone Au- thentication protocol utilizing the photo-response non-uniformity (PRNU) of the Built-in Camera. In contrast to previous works that require tens of images to build reliable PRNU features for conventional cameras, we are the first to observe that one image alone can uniquely identify a smartphone due to the unique PRNU of a smartphone image sensor. This new discovery makes the use of PRNU practical for smartphone authentication. While most existing hardware fingerprints are vulnerable against forgery attacks, ABC defeats forgery attacks by verifying a smartphone’s PRNU identity through a challenge response protocol using a visible light communication channel. A user captures two time-variant QR codes and sends the two images to a server, which verifies the identity by fingerprint and image content matching. The time-variant QR codes can also defeat replay attacks. Our experiments with 16,000 images over 40 smartphones show that ABC can efficiently authenticate user devices with an error rate less than 0.5%. 
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  3. Reliably identifying and authenticating smartphones is critical in our daily life since they are increasingly being used to manage sensitive data such as private messages and financial data. Recent researches on hardware fingerprinting show that each smartphone, regardless of the manufacturer or make, possesses a variety of hardware fingerprints that are unique, robust, and physically unclonable. There is a growing interest in designing and implementing hardware-rooted smartphone authentication which authenticates smartphones through verifying the hardware fingerprints of their built-in sensors. Unfortunately, previous fingerprinting methods either involve large registration overhead or suffer from fingerprint forgery attacks, rendering them infeasible in authentication systems. In this paper, we propose ABC, a real-time smartphone Authentication protocol utilizing the photo-response non-uniformity (PRNU) of the Built-in Camera. In contrast to previous works that require tens of images to build reliable PRNU features for conventional cameras, we are the first to observe that one image alone can uniquely identify a smartphone due to the unique PRNU of a smartphone image sensor. This new discovery makes the use of PRNU practical for smartphone authentication. While most existing hardware fingerprints are vulnerable against forgery attacks, ABC defeats forgery attacks by verifying a smartphone’s PRNU identity through a challenge response protocol using a visible light communication channel. A user captures two time-variant QR codes and sends the two images to a server, which verifies the identity by fingerprint and image content matching. The time-variant QR codes can also defeat replay attacks. Our experiments with 16,000 images over 40 smartphones show that ABC can efficiently authenticate user devices with an error rate less than 0.5%. 
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