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  1. ABSTRACT Electromagnetic precursor waves generated by the synchrotron maser instability at relativistic magnetized shocks have been recently invoked to explain the coherent radio emission of fast radio bursts. By means of 2D particle-in-cell simulations, we explore the properties of the precursor waves in relativistic electron–positron perpendicular shocks as a function of the pre-shock magnetization σ ≳ 1 (i.e. the ratio of incoming Poynting flux to particle energy flux) and thermal spread Δγ ≡ kT/mc2 = 10−5−10−1. We measure the fraction fξ of total incoming energy that is converted into precursor waves, as computed in the post-shock frame. At fixed magnetization, we find that fξ is nearly independent of temperature as long as Δγ ≲ 10−1.5 (with only a modest decrease of a factor of 3 from Δγ = 10−5 to Δγ = 10−1.5), but it drops by nearly two orders of magnitude for Δγ ≳ 10−1. At fixed temperature, the scaling with magnetization $f_\xi \sim 10^{-3}\, \sigma ^{-1}$ is consistent with our earlier 1D results. For our reference σ = 1, the power spectrum of precursor waves is relatively broad (fractional width ∼1 − 3) for cold temperatures, whereas it shows pronounced line-like features with fractional width ∼0.2 for 10−3 ≲ Δγ ≲ 10−1.5. For σ ≳ 1, the precursor waves aremore »beamed within an angle ≃σ−1/2 from the shock normal (as measured in the post-shock frame), as required so they can outrun the shock. Our results can provide physically grounded inputs for FRB emission models based on maser emission from relativistic shocks.« less
  2. Abstract The nova rate in the Milky Way remains largely uncertain, despite its vital importance in constraining models of Galactic chemical evolution as well as understanding progenitor channels for Type Ia supernovae. The rate has been previously estimated to be in the range of ≈10–300 yr −1 , either based on extrapolations from a handful of very bright optical novae or the nova rates in nearby galaxies; both methods are subject to debatable assumptions. The total discovery rate of optical novae remains much smaller (≈5–10 yr −1 ) than these estimates, even with the advent of all-sky optical time-domain surveys. Here, we present a systematic sample of 12 spectroscopically confirmed Galactic novae detected in the first 17 months of Palomar Gattini-IR (PGIR), a wide-field near-infrared time-domain survey. Operating in the J band (≈1.2 μ m), which is significantly less affected by dust extinction compared to optical bands, the extinction distribution of the PGIR sample is highly skewed to a large extinction values (>50% of events obscured by A V ≳ 5 mag). Using recent estimates for the distribution of Galactic mass and dust, we show that the extinction distribution of the PGIR sample is commensurate with dust models. The PGIRmore »extinction distribution is inconsistent with that reported in previous optical searches (null-hypothesis probability <0.01%), suggesting that a large population of highly obscured novae have been systematically missed in previous optical searches. We perform the first quantitative simulation of a 3 π time-domain survey to estimate the Galactic nova rate using PGIR, and derive a rate of ≈ 43.7 − 8.7 + 19.5 yr −1 . Our results suggest that all-sky near-infrared time-domain surveys are well poised to uncover the Galactic nova population.« less