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  1. A bstract A novel mechanism, “catalyzed baryogenesis”, is proposed to explain the observed baryon asymmetry in our universe. In this mechanism, the motion of a ball-like catalyst provides the necessary out-of-equilibrium condition, its outer wall has CP-violating interactions with the Standard Model particles, and its interior has baryon number violating interactions. We use the electroweak-symmetric ball model as an example of such a catalyst. In this model, electroweak sphalerons inside the ball are active and convert baryons into leptons. The observed baryon number asymmetry can be produced for a light ball mass and a large ball radius. Due to direct detection constraints on relic balls, we consider a scenario in which the balls evaporate, leading to dark radiation at testable levels.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
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  6. The recent observation of superconductivity in N d 0.8 S r 0.2 N i O 2 has raised fundamental questions about the hierarchy of the underlying electronic structure. Calculations suggest that this system falls in the Mott–Hubbard regime, rather than the charge-transfer configuration of other nickel oxides and the superconducting cuprates. Here, we use state-of-the-art, locally resolved electron energy-loss spectroscopy to directly probe the Mott–Hubbard character of N d 1 − x S r x N i O 2 . Upon doping, we observe emergent hybridization reminiscent of the Zhang–Rice singlet via the oxygen-projected states, modification of the Nd 5d states, and the systematic evolution of Ni 3d hybridization and filling. These experimental data provide direct evidence for the multiband electronic structure of the superconducting infinite-layer nickelates, particularly via the effects of hole doping on not only the oxygen but also nickel and rare-earth bands.
  7. The operation of a Li-ion battery involves a concerted sequence of mass and charge transport processes, which are underpinned by alternating dilation/contraction of the active electrode materials. Several Li-ion battery failure mechanisms can be directly traced to lattice-mismatch strain arising from local compositional heterogeneities. The mechanisms of chemo-mechanical coupling that effect phase separation and the resulting complex evolution of internal stress fields remain inadequately understood. This work employs X-ray microscopy techniques to image the evolution of composition and stress across individual bent V 2 O 5 particles. Experimental findings show that lattice strain imposed by the deformation of an individual cathode particle profoundly modifies phase separation patterns, yielding striated Li-rich domains ensconced within a Li-poor matrix. Particle-level inhomogeneities compound across scales resulting in fracture and capacity fade. Coupled phase field modeling of the evolution of domains reveals that the observed patterns minimize the energetic costs incurred by the geometrically imposed strain gradients during lithiation of the material and illustrate that phase separation motifs depend sensitively on the particle geometry, dimensions, interfacial energetics, and lattice incommensurability. Sharp differences in phase separation patterns are observed between lithiation and delithiation. This work demonstrates the promise of strain-engineering and particle geometry to deterministically controlmore »phase separation motifs such as to minimize accumulated stresses and mitigate important degradation mechanisms.« less