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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. In high-rate structural health monitoring, it is crucial to quickly and accurately assess the current state of a component under dynamic loads. State information is needed to make informed decisions about timely interventions to prevent damage and extend the structure’s life. In previous studies, a dynamic reproduction of projectiles in ballistic environments (DROPBEAR) testbed was used to evaluate the accuracy of state estimation techniques through dynamic analysis. This paper extends previous research by incorporating the local eigenvalue modification procedure (LEMP) and data fusion techniques to create a more robust state estimate using optimal sampling methodologies. The process of estimating the state involves taking a measured frequency response of the structure, proposing frequency response profiles, and accepting the most similar profile as the new mean for the position estimate distribution. Utilizing LEMP allows for a faster approximation of the proposed model with linear time complexity, making it suitable for 2D or sequential damage cases. The current study focuses on two proposed sampling methodology refinements: distilling the selection of candidate test models from the position distribution and applying a Kalman filter after the distribution update to find the mean. Both refinements were effective in improving the position estimate and the structural state accuracy, as shown by the time response assurance criterion and the signal-to-noise ratio with up to 17% improvement. These two metrics demonstrate the benefits of incorporating data fusion techniques into the high-rate state identification process. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 28, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    Structures operating in high-rate dynamic environments, such as hypersonic vehicles, orbital space infrastructure, and blast mitigation systems, require microsecond (μs) decision-making. Advances in real-time sensing, edge-computing, and high-bandwidth computer memory are enabling emerging technologies such as High-rate structural health monitoring (HR-SHM) to become more feasible. Due to the time restrictions such systems operate under, a target of 1 millisecond (ms) from event detection to decision-making is set at the goal to enable HR-SHM. With minimizing latency in mind, a data-driven method that relies on time-series measurements processed in real-time to infer the state of the structure is investigated in this preliminary work. A methodology for deploying LSTM-based state estimators for structures using subsampled time-series vibration data is presented. The proposed estimator is deployed to an embedded real-time device and the achieved accuracy along with system timing are discussed. The proposed approach has shown potential for high-rate state estimation as it provides sufficient accuracy for the considered structure while a time-step of 2.5 ms is achieved. The Contributions of this work are twofold: 1) a framework for deploying LSTM models in real-time for high-rate state estimation, 2) an experimental validation of LSTMs running on a real-time computing system.

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  5. “Active structures” are physical structures that incorporate real-time monitoring and control. Examples include active vibration damping or blast mitigation systems. Evaluating physics-based models in real-time is generally not feasible for such systems having high-rate dynamics which require microsecond response times, but data-driven machine-learning-based models can potentially offer a solution. This paper compares the cost and performance of two FPGA-based implementations of real-time, continuously-trained models for forecasting timeseries signals with non-stationarities, with one using HighLevel Synthesis (HLS) and the other a programmable overlay architecture. The proposed model accepts a uni-variate vibration signal and seeks to forecast future samples to inform highrate controllers. The proposed forecasting method performs two concurrent neural inference operations. One inference forecasts the state of the signal f samples into the future as a function of the most recent h samples, while the other forecasts the current sample given h samples starting from h + f − 1 samples into the past. The first forecast produces the forecast while the second forecast allows the system to calculate the model’s loss and perform an immediate model update before the next sample period. 
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  6. Madarshahian, Ramin ; Hemez, Francois (Ed.)
    Validation of state observers for high-rate structural health monitoring requires the testing of state observers on a large library of pre-recorded signals, both uni- and multi-variate. However, experimental testing of high-value structures can be cost and time prohibitive. While finite element modeling can generate additional datasets, it lacks the fidelity to reproduce the non-stationarities present in the signal, particularly at the higher end of the digitized signal's frequency band. In this preliminary work, generative adversarial networks are investigated for the synthesis of uni- and multi-variate acceleration signals for an electronics package under shock. Generative adversarial networks are a class of deep learning approach that learns to generate new data that is statistically similar to the original data but not identical and thus augmenting the data diversity and balance. This chapter presents a methodology for synthesizing statistically indistinguishable time-series data for a structure under shock. Results show that generative adversarial networks are capable of producing material reminiscent of that obtained through experimental testing. The generated data is compared statistically to experimental data, and the accuracy, diversity, and limitations of the method are discussed. 
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  7. Han, Jae-Hung ; Shahab, Shima ; Yang, Jinkyu (Ed.)
    Hard real-time time-series forecasting of temporal signals has applications in the field of structural health monitoring and control. Particularly for structures experiencing high-rate dynamics, examples of such structures include hypersonic vehicles and space infrastructure. This work reports on the development of a coupled softwarehardware algorithm for deterministic and low-latency online time-series forecasting of structural vibrations that is capable of learning over nonstationary events and adjusting its forecasted signal following an event. The proposed algorithm uses an ensemble of multi-layer perceptrons trained offline on experimental and simulated data relevant to the structure. A dynamic attention layer is then used to selectively scale the outputs of the individual models to obtain a unified forecasted signal over the considered prediction horizon. The scalar values of the dynamic attention layer are continuously updated by quantifying the error between the signal’s measured value and its previously predicted value. Deterministic timing of the proposed algorithm is achieved through its deployment on a field programmable gate array. The performance of the proposed algorithm is validated on experimental data taken on a test structure. Results demonstrate that a total system latency of 25.76 µs can be achieved on a Kintex-7 70T FPGA with sufficient accuracy for the considered system. 
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  8. Abstract

    In this paper, a method for real-time forecasting of the dynamics of structures experiencing nonstationary inputs is described. This is presented as time series predictions across different timescales. The target applications include hypersonic vehicles, space launch systems, real-time prognostics, and monitoring of high-rate and energetic systems. This work presents numerical analysis and experimental results for the real-time implementation of a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT)-based approach for time series forecasting. For this preliminary study, a testbench structure that consists of a cantilever beam subjected to nonstationary inputs is used to generate experimental data. First, the data is de-trended, then the time series data is transferred into the frequency domain, and measures for frequency, amplitude, and phase are obtained. Thereafter, select frequency components are collected, transformed back to the time domain, recombined, and then the trend in the data is restored. Finally, the recombined signals are propagated into the future to the selected prediction horizon. This preliminary time series forecasting work is done offline using pre-recorded experimental data, and the FFT-based approach is implemented in a rolling window configuration. Here learning windows of 0.1, 0.5, and 1 s are considered with different computation times simulated. Results demonstrate that the proposed FFT-based approach can maintain a constant prediction horizon at 1 s with sufficient accuracy for the considered system. The performance of the system is quantified using a variety of metrics. Computational speed and prediction accuracy as a function of training time and learning window lengths are examined in this work. The algorithm configuration with the shortest learning window (0.1 s) is shown to converge faster following the nonstationary when compared to algorithm configuration with longer learning windows.

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