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Creators/Authors contains: "Baladandayuthapani, Veerabhadran"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Abstract Motivation

    The analysis of spatially resolved transcriptome enables the understanding of the spatial interactions between the cellular environment and transcriptional regulation. In particular, the characterization of the gene–gene co-expression at distinct spatial locations or cell types in the tissue enables delineation of spatial co-regulatory patterns as opposed to standard differential single gene analyses. To enhance the ability and potential of spatial transcriptomics technologies to drive biological discovery, we develop a statistical framework to detect gene co-expression patterns in a spatially structured tissue consisting of different clusters in the form of cell classes or tissue domains.


    We develop SpaceX (spatially dependent gene co-expression network), a Bayesian methodology to identify both shared and cluster-specific co-expression network across genes. SpaceX uses an over-dispersed spatial Poisson model coupled with a high-dimensional factor model which is based on a dimension reduction technique for computational efficiency. We show via simulations, accuracy gains in co-expression network estimation and structure by accounting for (increasing) spatial correlation and appropriate noise distributions. In-depth analysis of two spatial transcriptomics datasets in mouse hypothalamus and human breast cancer using SpaceX, detected multiple hub genes which are related to cognitive abilities for the hypothalamus data and multiple cancer genes (e.g. collagen family) from the tumor region for the breast cancer data.

    Availability and implementation

    The SpaceX R-package is available at

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

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  3. Abstract

    Integrative analyses based on statistically relevant associations between genomics and a wealth of intermediary phenotypes (such as imaging) provide vital insights into their clinical relevance in terms of the disease mechanisms. Estimates for uncertainty in the resulting integrative models are however unreliable unless inference accounts for the selection of these associations with accuracy. In this paper, we develop selection-aware Bayesian methods, which (1) counteract the impact of model selection bias through a “selection-aware posterior” in a flexible class of integrative Bayesian models post a selection of promising variables via ℓ1-regularized algorithms; (2) strike an inevitable trade-off between the quality of model selection and inferential power when the same data set is used for both selection and uncertainty estimation. Central to our methodological development, a carefully constructed conditional likelihood function deployed with a reparameterization mapping provides tractable updates when gradient-based Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling is used for estimating uncertainties from the selection-aware posterior. Applying our methods to a radiogenomic analysis, we successfully recover several important gene pathways and estimate uncertainties for their associations with patient survival times.

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  4. Abstract

    The successful development and implementation of precision immuno-oncology therapies requires a deeper understanding of the immune architecture at a patient level. T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire sequencing is a relatively new technology that enables monitoring of T-cells, a subset of immune cells that play a central role in modulating immune response. These immunologic relationships are complex and are governed by various distributional aspects of an individual patient's tumor profile. We propose Bayesian QUANTIle regression for hierarchical COvariates (QUANTICO) that allows simultaneous modeling of hierarchical relationships between multilevel covariates, conducts explicit variable selection, estimates quantile and patient-specific coefficient effects, to induce individualized inference. We show QUANTICO outperforms existing approaches in multiple simulation scenarios. We demonstrate the utility of QUANTICO to investigate the effect of TCR variables on immune response in a cohort of lung cancer patients. At population level, our analyses reveal the mechanistic role of T-cell proportion on the immune cell abundance, with tumor mutation burden as an important factor modulating this relationship. At a patient level, we find several outlier patients based on their quantile-specific coefficient functions, who have higher mutational rates and different smoking history.

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  5. Abstract

    Cancer cell lines serve as modelin vitrosystems for investigating therapeutic interventions. Recent advances in high‐throughput genomic profiling have enabled the systematic comparison between cell lines and patient tumor samples. The highly interconnected nature of biological data, however, presents a challenge when mapping patient tumors to cell lines. Standard clustering methods can be particularly susceptible to the high level of noise present in these datasets and only output clusters at one unknown scale of the data. In light of these challenges, we present NetCellMatch, a robust framework for network‐based matching of cell lines to patient tumors. NetCellMatch first constructs a global network across all cell line‐patient samples using their genomic similarity. Then, a multi‐scale community detection algorithm integrates information across topologically meaningful (clustering) scales to obtain Network‐Based Matching Scores (NBMS). NBMS are measures ofcluster robustnesswhich map patient tumors to cell lines. We use NBMS to determine representative “avatar” cell lines for subgroups of patients. We apply NetCellMatch to reverse‐phase protein array data obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas for patients and the MD Anderson Cell Line Project for cell lines. Along with avatar cell line identification, we evaluate connectivity patterns for breast, lung, and colon cancer and explore the proteomic profiles of avatars and their corresponding top matching patients. Our results demonstrate our framework's ability to identify both patient‐cell line matches and potential proteomic drivers of similarity. Our methods are general and can be easily adapted to other'omic datasets.

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  6. Abstract

    Graphical models are powerful tools that are regularly used to investigate complex dependence structures in high-throughput biomedical datasets. They allow for holistic, systems-level view of the various biological processes, for intuitive and rigorous understanding and interpretations. In the context of large networks, Bayesian approaches are particularly suitable because it encourages sparsity of the graphs, incorporate prior information, and most importantly account for uncertainty in the graph structure. These features are particularly important in applications with limited sample size, including genomics and imaging studies. In this paper, we review several recently developed techniques for the analysis of large networks under non-standard settings, including but not limited to, multiple graphs for data observed from multiple related subgroups, graphical regression approaches used for the analysis of networks that change with covariates, and other complex sampling and structural settings. We also illustrate the practical utility of some of these methods using examples in cancer genomics and neuroimaging.

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  7. With only 536 COVID-19 cases and 11 fatalities, India took the historic decision of a 21-day national lockdown on March 25, 2020. The lockdown was first extended to May 3 soon after the analysis of this article was completed, and then to May 18 while this article was being revised. In this article, we use a Bayesian extension of the susceptible-infected-removed (eSIR) model designed for intervention forecasting to study the short- and long-term impact of an initial 21-day lockdown on the total number of COVID-19 infections in India compared to other, less severe nonpharmaceutical interventions. We compare effects of hypothetical durations of lockdown on reducing the number of active and new infections. We find that the lockdown, if implemented correctly, can reduce the total number of cases in the short term, and buy India invaluable time to prepare its health care and disease-monitoring system. Our analysis shows we need to have some measures of suppression in place after the lockdown for increased benefit (as measured by reduction in the number of cases). A longer lockdown from 42–56 days is preferable to substantially ‘flatten the curve’ when compared to 21–28 days of lockdown. Our models focus solely on projecting the number of COVID-19 infections and thus inform policymakers about one aspect of this multifaceted decision-making problem. We conclude with a discussion on the pivotal role of increased testing, reliable and transparent data, proper uncertainty quantification, accurate interpretation of forecasting models, reproducible data science methods, and tools that can enable data-driven policymaking during a pandemic. Our software products are available at 
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