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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Abstract

    A thorough understanding of neutrino–nucleus scattering physics is crucial for the successful execution of the entire US neutrino physics program. Neutrino–nucleus interaction constitutes one of the biggest systematic uncertainties in neutrino experiments—both at intermediate energies affecting long-baseline deep underground neutrino experiment, as well as at low energies affecting coherent scattering neutrino program—and could well be the difference between achieving or missing discovery level precision. To this end, electron–nucleus scattering experiments provide vital information to test, assess and validate different nuclear models and event generators intended to test, assess and validate different nuclear models and event generators intended to be used in neutrino experiments. Similarly, for the low-energy neutrino program revolving around the coherent elastic neutrino–nucleus scattering (CEvNS) physics at stopped pion sources, such as at ORNL, the main source of uncertainty in the evaluation of the CEvNS cross section is driven by the underlying nuclear structure, embedded in the weak form factor, of the target nucleus. To this end, parity-violating electron scattering (PVES) experiments, utilizing polarized electron beams, provide vital model-independent information in determining weak form factors. This information is vital in achieving a percent level precision needed to disentangle new physics signals from the standard model expected CEvNS rate. In this white paper, we highlight connections between electron- and neutrino–nucleus scattering physics at energies ranging from 10 s of MeV to a few GeV, review the status of ongoing and planned electron scattering experiments, identify gaps, and lay out a path forward that benefits the neutrino community. We also highlight the systemic challenges with respect to the divide between the nuclear and high-energy physics communities and funding that presents additional hurdles in mobilizing these connections to the benefit of neutrino programs.

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  5. Context. Pulsational pair-instability supernovae (PPISNe) and pair instability supernovae (PISNe) are the result of a thermonuclear runaway in the presence of a background electron-positron pair plasma. As such, their evolution and resultant black hole masses could possibly be affected by screening corrections due to the electron pair plasma. Aims. The sensitivity of PISNe and PPISNe to relativistic weak screening has been explored. Methods. In this paper a weak screening model that includes effects from relativistic pair production has been developed and applied at temperatures approaching and exceeding the threshold for pair production. This screening model replaces “classical” screening commonly used in astrophysics. Modifications to the weak screening electron Debye length were incorporated in a computationally tractable analytic form. Results. In PPISNe the BH masses were found to increase somewhat at high temperatures, though this increase is small. The BH collapse is also found to occur at earlier times, and the pulsational morphology also changes. In addition to the resultant BH mass, the sensitivity to the screening model of the pulsational period, the pulse structure, the PPISN-to-PISN transition, and the shift in the BH mass gap has been analyzed. The dependence of the composition of the ejected mass was also examined. 
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  6. null (Ed.)