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  1. Woodson, C Brock (Ed.)
    Abstract Predicting the impact of marine ecosystem warming on the timing and magnitude of phytoplankton production is challenging. For example, warming can advance the progression of stratification thereby changing the availability of nutrients to surface phytoplankton, or influence the surface mixed layer depth, thus affecting light availability. Here, we use a time series of sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll remote sensing products to characterize the response of the phytoplankton community to increased temperature in the Northeast US Shelf Ecosystem. The rate of change in SST was higher in the summer than in winter in all ecoregions resulting in little change in the timing and magnitude of the spring thermal transition compared to a significant change in the autumn transition. Along with little phenological shift in spring thermal conditions, there was also no evidence of a change in spring bloom timing and duration. However, we observed a change in autumn bloom timing in the Georges Bank ecoregion, where bloom initiation has shifted from late September to late October between 1998 and 2020—on average 33 d later. Bloom duration in this ecoregion also shortened from ∼7.5 to 5 weeks. The shortened autumn bloom may be caused by later overturn in stratification known to initiate autumn blooms in the region, whereas the timing of light limitation at the end of the bloom remains unchanged.  These changes in bloom timing and duration appear to be related to the change in autumn thermal conditions and the significant shift in autumn thermal transition. These results suggest that the spring bloom phenology in this temperate continental shelf ecosystem may be more resilient to thermal climate change effects than blooms occurring in other times of the year. 
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  2. Abstract

    The interface between the nutrient‐rich Southern Ocean and oligotrophic Indian Ocean creates unique environmental conditions that can strongly influence biological processes. We investigated protist communities across a mesoscale meander of the Subtropical Front within the Southern Indian Ocean. 18S V9 rDNA metabarcoding suggests a diverse protist community in which the dinoflagellates and parasitic Syndiniales were abundant. Diversity was highest in frontal waters of the mesoscale meander, with differences in community structure inside and outside the meander. While the overall community was dominated by mixotrophic taxa, the frontal boundary of the meander had increased abundances of heterotrophic taxa, with potential implications for net atmospheric CO2drawdown. Pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorimetry revealed significant differences in the photophysiology of phytoplankton communities inside and outside the meander. By using single‐cell PAM microscopy, we identified physiological differences between dinoflagellate and coccolithophore taxa, which may have contributed to changes in photophysiology observed at community level. Overall, our results demonstrate that frontal areas have a strong impact on the composition of protist communities in the Southern Ocean with important implications for understanding biological processes in this region.

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  3. Oceanographic lidar can provide remote estimates of the vertical distribution of suspended particles in natural waters, potentially revolutionizing our ability to characterize marine ecosystems and properly represent them in models of upper ocean biogeochemistry. However, lidar signals exhibit complex dependencies on water column inherent optical properties (IOPs) and instrument characteristics, which complicate efforts to derive meaningful biogeochemical properties from lidar return signals. In this study, we used a ship-based system to measure the lidar attenuation coefficient (α<#comment/>) and linear depolarization ratio (δ<#comment/>) across a variety of optically and biogeochemically distinct water masses, including turbid coastal waters, clear oligotrophic waters, and calcite rich waters associated with a mesoscale coccolithophore bloom. Sea surface IOPs were measured continuously while underway to characterize the response ofα<#comment/>andδ<#comment/>to changes in particle abundance and composition. The magnitude ofα<#comment/>was consistent with the diffuse attenuation coefficient (Kd), though theα<#comment/>versusKdrelationship was nonlinear.δ<#comment/>was positively related to the scattering optical depth and the calcite fraction of backscattering. A statistical fit to these data suggests that the polarized scattering properties of calcified particles are distinct and contribute to measurable differences in the lidar depolarization ratio. A better understanding of the polarized scattering properties of coccolithophores and other marine particles will further our ability to interpret polarized oceanographic lidar measurements and may lead to new techniques for measuring the material properties of marine particles remotely.

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  4. Summary

    The evolutionary and ecological story of coccolithophores poses questions about their heterotrophy, surviving darkness after the end‐Cretaceous asteroid impact as well as survival in the deep ocean twilight zone. Uptake of dissolved organic carbon might be an alternative nutritional strategy for supply of energy and carbon molecules.

    Using long‐term batch culture experiments, we examined coccolithophore growth and maintenance on organic compounds in darkness. Radiolabelled experiments were performed to study the uptake kinetics. Pulse–chase experiments were used to examine the uptake into unassimilated, exchangeable pools vs assimilated, nonexchangeable pools.

    We found that coccolithophores were able to survive and maintain their metabolism for up to 30 d in darkness, accomplishing about one cell division. The concentration dependence for uptake was similar to the concentration dependence for growth inCruciplacolithus neohelis, suggesting that it was taking up carbon compounds and immediately incorporating them into biomass. We recorded net incorporation of radioactivity into the particulate inorganic fraction.

    We conclude that osmotrophy provides nutritional flexibility and supports long‐term survival in light intensities well below threshold for photosynthesis. The incorporation of dissolved organic matter into particulate inorganic carbon, raises fundamental questions about the role of the alkalinity pump and the alkalinity balance in the sea.

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  5. Abstract

    The Gulf of Maine North Atlantic Time Series (GNATS) has been run since 1998, across the Gulf of Maine (GoM), between Maine and Nova Scotia. GNATS goals are to provide ocean color satellite validation and to examine change in this coastal ecosystem. We have sampled hydrographical, biological, chemical, biogeochemical, and bio‐optical variables. After 2008, warm water intrusions (likely North Atlantic Slope Water [NASW]) were observed in the eastern GoM at 50–180 m depths. Shallow waters (<50 m) significantly warmed in winter, summer, and fall butcooledduring spring. Surface salinity and density of the GoM also significantly increased over the 20 years. Phytoplankton standing stock and primary production showed highly‐significant decreases during the period. Concentrations of phosphate increased, silicate decreased, residual nitrate [N*; nitrate‐silicate] increased, and the ratio of dissolved inorganic nitrogen:phosphate decreased, suggesting increasing nitrogen limitation. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and its optical indices generally increased over two decades, suggesting changes to the DOC cycle. Surface seawater carbonate chemistry showed winter periods where the aragonite saturation (Ωar) dropped below 1.6 gulf‐wide due to upward winter mixing of cool, corrosive water. However, associated with increased average GoM temperatures, Ωarhas significantly increased. These results reinforce the hypothesis that the observed decrease in surface GoM primary production resulted from a switch from Labrador Sea Water to NASW entering the GoM. A multifactor analysis shows that decreasing GoM primary production is most significantly correlated to decreases in chlorophyll and particulate organic carbon plus increases in N* and temperature.

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  6. Abstract

    The most common biomineral produced in the contemporary ocean is calcium carbonate, including the polymorph calcite produced by coccolithophores. The surface waters of the ocean are supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate. As a result, particulate inorganic carbon (PIC), such as calcite coccoliths, is not expected thermodynamically to dissolve in waters above the lysocline (~4500–6000 m). However, observations indicate that up to 60–80% of calcium carbonate is lost in the upper 500–1000 m of the ocean. This is hypothesized to occur in microenvironments with reduced saturation states, such as zooplankton guts. Using a new application of the highly precise14C microdiffusion technique, we show that following a period of starvation, up to 38% of ingested calcite dissolves in copepod guts. After continued feeding, our data show the gut becomes increasingly buffered, which limits further dissolution; this has been termed the Tums hypothesis (after the drugstore remedy for stomach acid). As less calcite dissolves in the gut and is instead egested in fecal pellets, the fecal pellet sinking rates double, with corresponding increases in pellet density. Our results empirically demonstrate that zooplankton guts can facilitate calcite dissolution above the chemical lysocline, and that carbon export through fecal pellet production is variable, based on the feeding history of the copepod.

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  7. Abstract. A global in situ data set for validation of ocean colour productsfrom the ESA Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI) is presented.This version of the compilation, starting in 1997, now extends to 2021,which is important for the validation of the most recent satellite opticalsensors such as Sentinel 3B OLCI and NOAA-20 VIIRS. The data set comprisesin situ observations of the following variables: spectral remote-sensingreflectance, concentration of chlorophyll-a, spectral inherent opticalproperties, spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient, and total suspendedmatter. Data were obtained from multi-project archives acquired via openinternet services or from individual projects acquired directly from dataproviders. Methodologies were implemented for homogenization, qualitycontrol, and merging of all data. Minimal changes were made on the originaldata, other than conversion to a standard format, elimination of some points,after quality control and averaging of observations that were close in timeand space. The result is a merged table available in text format. Overall,the size of the data set grew with 148 432 rows, with each row representing aunique station in space and time (cf. 136 250 rows in previous version;Valente et al., 2019). Observations of remote-sensing reflectance increasedto 68 641 (cf. 59 781 in previous version; Valente et al., 2019). There wasalso a near tenfold increase in chlorophyll data since 2016. Metadata ofeach in situ measurement (original source, cruise or experiment, principalinvestigator) are included in the final table. By making the metadataavailable, provenance is better documented and it is also possible toanalyse each set of data separately. The compiled data are available at (Valente et al., 2022). 
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  8. Abstract. A global compilation of in situ data is useful to evaluate thequality of ocean-colour satellite data records. Here we describe the datacompiled for the validation of the ocean-colour products from the ESA OceanColour Climate Change Initiative (OC-CCI). The data were acquired fromseveral sources (including, inter alia, MOBY, BOUSSOLE, AERONET-OC, SeaBASS, NOMAD,MERMAID, AMT, ICES, HOT and GeP&CO) and span the period from 1997 to 2018.Observations of the following variables were compiled: spectralremote-sensing reflectances, concentrations of chlorophyll a, spectralinherent optical properties, spectral diffuse attenuation coefficients andtotal suspended matter. The data were from multi-project archives acquiredvia open internet services or from individual projects, acquired directlyfrom data providers. Methodologies were implemented for homogenization,quality control and merging of all data. No changes were made to theoriginal data, other than averaging of observations that were close in timeand space, elimination of some points after quality control and conversionto a standard format. The final result is a merged table designed forvalidation of satellite-derived ocean-colour products and available in textformat. Metadata of each in situ measurement (original source, cruise orexperiment, principal investigator) was propagated throughout the work andmade available in the final table. By making the metadata available,provenance is better documented, and it is also possible to analyse each setof data separately. This paper also describes the changes that were made tothe compilation in relation to the previous version (Valente et al., 2016).The compiled data are available at (Valente et al., 2019). 
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