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  1. A long standing open problem in the theory of neural networks is the development of quantitative methods to estimate and compare the capabilities of different architectures. Here we define the capacity of an architecture by the binary logarithm of the number of functions it can compute, as the synaptic weights are varied. The capacity provides an upper bound on the number of bits that can be extracted from the training data and stored in the architecture during learning. We study the capacity of layered, fully-connected, architectures of linear threshold neurons with L layers and show that in essence the capacitymore »is given by a cubic polynomial in the layer sizes. In proving the main result, we also develop new techniques (multiplexing, enrichment, and stacking) as well as new bounds on the capacity of finite sets. We use the main result to identify architectures with maximal or minimal capacity under a number of natural constraints. This leads to the notion of structural regularization for deep architectures. While in general, everything else being equal, shallow networks compute more functions than deep networks, the functions computed by deep networks are more regular and “interesting".« less
  2. Recently, Approximate Policy Iteration (API) algorithms have achieved superhuman proficiency in two-player zero-sum games such as Go, Chess, and Shogi without human data. These API algorithms iterate between two policies: a slow policy (tree search), and a fast policy (a neural network). In these two-player games, a reward is always received at the end of the game. However, the Rubik’s Cube has only a single solved state, and episodes are not guaranteed to terminate. This poses a major problem for these API algorithms since they rely on the reward received at the end of the game. We introduce Autodidactic Iteration:more »an API algorithm that overcomes the problem of sparse rewards by training on a distribution of states that allows the reward to propagate from the goal state to states farther away. Autodidactic Iteration is able to learn how to solve the Rubik’s Cube without relying on human data. Our algorithm is able to solve 100% of randomly scrambled cubes while achieving a median solve length of 30 moves — less than or equal to solvers that employ human domain knowledge.« less
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2022
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2022
  5. null (Ed.)
  6. Abstract The two-detector design of the NOvA neutrino oscillation experiment, in which two functionally identical detectors are exposed to an intense neutrino beam, aids in canceling leading order effects of cross-section uncertainties. However, limited knowledge of neutrino interaction cross sections still gives rise to some of the largest systematic uncertainties in current oscillation measurements. We show contemporary models of neutrino interactions to be discrepant with data from NOvA, consistent with discrepancies seen in other experiments. Adjustments to neutrino interaction models in GENIE are presented, creating an effective model that improves agreement with our data. We also describe systematic uncertainties onmore »these models, including uncertainties on multi-nucleon interactions from a newly developed procedure using NOvA near detector data.« less
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023