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  1. Abstract

    Since the discovery of superconductivity at ~ 200 K in H3S [1], similar or higher transition temperatures,Tcs, have been reported for various hydrogen-rich compounds under ultra-high pressures [2]. Superconductivity was experimentally proved by different methods, including electrical resistance, magnetic susceptibility, optical infrared, and nuclear resonant scattering measurements. The crystal structures of superconducting phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. Numerous electrical transport measurements demonstrate the typical behavior of a conventional phonon-mediated superconductor: zero resistance belowTc, shift ofTcto lower temperatures under external magnetic fields, and pronounced isotope effect. Remarkably, the results are in good agreement with the theoretical predictions, which describe superconductivity in hydrides within the framework of the conventional BCS theory. However, despite this acknowledgement, experimental evidences for the superconducting state in these compounds have recently been treated with criticism [3–7], which apparently stems from misunderstanding and misinterpretation of complicated experiments performed under very high pressures. Here, we describe in greater detail the experiments revealing high-temperature superconductivity in hydrides under high pressures. We show that the arguments against superconductivity [3–7] can be either refuted or explained. The experiments on the high-temperature superconductivity in hydrides clearly contradict the theory of hole superconductivity [8] and eliminate it [3].

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  2. Two-dimensional van der Waals (vdWs) materials have gathered a lot of attention recently. However, the majority of these materials have Curie temperatures that are well below room temperature, making it challenging to incorporate them into device applications. In this work, we synthesized a room-temperature vdW magnetic crystal Fe5GeTe2 with a Curie temperature T$_c = 332$ K, and studied its magnetic properties by vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) and broadband ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) spectroscopy. The experiments were performed with external magnetic fields applied along the c-axis (H$\parallel$c) and the ab-plane (H$\parallel$ab), with temperatures ranging from 300 to 10 K. We have found a sizable Landé g-factor difference between the H$\parallel$c and H$\parallel$ab cases. In both cases, the Landé g-factor values deviated from g = 2. This indicates contribution of orbital angular momentum to the magnetic moment. The FMR measurements reveal that Fe5GeTe2 has a damping constant comparable to Permalloy. With reducing temperature, the linewidth was broadened. Together with the VSM data, our measurements indicate that Fe5GeTe2 transitions from ferromagnetic to ferrimagnetic at lower temperatures. Our experiments highlight key information regarding the magnetic state and spin scattering processes in Fe5GeTe2, which promote the understanding of magnetism in Fe5GeTe2, leading to implementations of Fe5GeTe2 based room-temperature spintronic devices. 
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