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Differences in foliar endophyte communities of red alder (Alnus rubra) exposed to varying air pollutant levelsIn the Pacific Northwest, Alnus rubra Bong. (red alder) is a common deciduous tree species especially prevalent in riparian corridors and disturbed sites, including metropolitan areas undergoing land use changes and development. Importantly, red alder is also considered a bioindicator for ozone pollution and, like all plants, harbors a diverse endophyte community that may interact with aerial pollutants. In this study, we surveyed foliar fungal endophyte communities (microfungi) in red alder leaves from the metropolitan area of Portland, Oregon, USA, using culture-based techniques, and found that communities differed significantly by site. Our results suggest that the fungal endophyte community compositionmore »
Quantitative effects of soil salinity on the symbiosis of wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) and Bradyrhizobium in Costa RicaGlobal climate change and local anthropogenic activities are increasing soil salinization with permanent negative effects on agricultural and ecosystem productivity. While salt stress is known to affect plant performance, its effects on the association with key microbial plant symbionts, such as legume-associated nitrogen-fixing rhizobia, are less understood. In this field study conducted in Costa Rica (Puntarenas), we used sympatrically-occurring wild lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) and Bradyrhizobium to quantify biomass production of unfertilized rhizobial (R+) and fertilized rhizobia-free (R-) plants at different levels of experimentally manipulated salinity in native soil. In response to salt stress, nodulation was significantly reduced evenmore »
Jasmonates are important phytohormones involved in both plant developmental processes as well as defense reactions. Many JA-mediated plant defense responses have been studied in model plants using mutants of the jasmonate signaling pathway. However, in plant species where JA-signaling mutants are not accessible, the availability of a tool targeting JA signaling is crucial to investigate jasmonate-dependent processes. Neomycin is a poly-cationic aminoglycoside antibiotic that blocks the release of Ca2+ from internal stores. We examined the inhibitory activities of neomycin on different jasmonate-inducible responses in eight different plant species: Intracellular calcium measurements in Nicotiana tabacum cell culture, Sporamin gene induction inmore »