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  1. Silva, A. ; Leino, K.R.M. (Ed.)
    In the Adapter-Design Pattern, a programmer implements a Target interface by constructing an Adapter that accesses an existing Adaptee code. In this work, we presented a reactive synthesis interpretation to the adapter design pattern, wherein an algorithm takes an Adaptee and a Target transducers, and the aim is to synthesize an Adapter transducer that, when composed with the Adaptee, generates a behavior that is equivalent to the behavior of the Target. One use of such an algorithm is to synthesize controllers that achieve similar goals on different hardware platforms. While this problem can be solved with existing synthesis algorithms, currentmore »state-of-the-art tools fail to scale. To cope with the computational complexity of the problem, we introduced a special form of specification format, called Separated GR(k), which can be solved with a scalable synthesis algorithm but still allows for a large set of realistic specifications. We solved the realizability and the synthesis problems for Separated GR(k), and showed how to exploit the separated nature of our specification to construct better algorithms, in terms of time complexity, than known algorithms for GR(k) synthesis. We then described a tool, called SGR(k), which we have implemented based on the above approach and showed, by experimental evaluation, how our tool outperforms current state-of-the-art tools on various benchmarks and test-cases.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2022
  2. Step-based tutoring systems are known to be more effective than traditional answer-based systems. They however require that each step in a student’s work be accepted and evaluated automatically to provide effective feedback. In the domain of linear circuit analysis, it is frequently necessary to allow students to draw or edit circuits on their screen to simplify or otherwise transform them. Here, the interface developed to accept such input and provide immediate feedback in the Circuit Tutor system is described, along with systematic assessment data. Advanced simplification methods such as removing circuit sections that are removably hinged, voltage-splittable, or current-splittable aremore »taught to students in an interactive tutorial and then supported in the circuit editor itself. To address the learning curve associated with such an interface, ~70 video tutorials were created to demonstrate exactly how to work the randomly generated problems at each level of each of the tutorials in the system. A complete written record or “transcript” of student’s work in the system is being made available, showing both incorrect and correct steps. Introductory interactive (multiple choice) tutorials are now included on most topics. Assessment of exercises using the interactive editor was carried out by professional evaluators for several institutions, including three that heavily serve underrepresented minorities. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used, including focus groups, surveys, and interviews. Controlled, randomized, blind evaluations were carried out in three different course sections in Spring and Fall 2019 to evaluate three tutorials using the interactive editor, comparing use of Circuit Tutor to both a commercial answer-based system and to conventional textbook-based paper homework. In Fall 2019, students rated the software a mean of 4.14/5 for being helpful to learn the material vs. 3.05/5 for paper homework (HW), p < 0.001 and effect size d = 1.11σ. On relevant exam questions that semester, students scored significantly (p = 0.014) higher with an effect size of d = 0.64σ when using Circuit Tutor compared to paper HW in one class section, with no significant difference in the other section.« less
  3. We present a simple approach to improve direct speech-to-text translation (ST) when the source language is low-resource: we pre-train the model on a high-resource automatic speech recognition (ASR) task, and then fine-tune its parameters for ST. We demonstrate that our approach is effective by pre-training on 300 hours of English ASR data to improve SpanishEnglish ST from 10.8 to 20.2 BLEU when only 20 hours of Spanish-English ST training data are available. Through an ablation study, we find that the pre-trained encoder (acoustic model) accounts for most of the improvement, despite the fact that the shared language in these tasksmore »is the target language text, not the source language audio. Applying this insight, we show that pre-training on ASR helps ST even when the ASR language differs from both source and target ST languages: pre-training on French ASR also improves Spanish-English ST. Finally, we show that the approach improves performance on a true low-resource task: pre-training on a combination of English ASR and French ASR improves Mboshi-French ST, where only 4 hours of data are available, from 3.5 to 7.1 BLEU.« less
  4. Step-based tutoring systems, in which each step of a student’s work is accepted by a computer using special interfaces and provided immediate feedback, are known to be more effective in promoting learning than traditional and more common answer-based tutoring systems, in which only the final (usually numerical) answer is evaluated. Prior work showed that this approach can be highly effective in the domain of linear circuit analysis in teaching topics involving relatively simple solution procedures. Here, we demonstrate a novel application of this approach to more cognitively complex, multi-step procedures used to analyze linear circuits using the superposition and sourcemore »transformation methods. Both methods require that students interactively edit a circuit diagram repeatedly, interspersed with the writing of relevant equations. Scores on post-tests and student opinions are compared using a blind classroom-based experiment where students are randomly assigned to use either the new system or a commercially published answer-based tutoring system on these topics. Post-test scores are not statistically significantly different but students prefer the step-based system by a margin of 84 to 11% for superposition and 68 to 23% for source transformations.« less
  5. Copper sulphide (CuxS, x=1 to 2) is a metal chalcogenide semiconductor that exhibits useful optical and electrical properties due to the presence of copper vacancies. This makes CuxS thin films useful for a number of applications including infrared absorbing coatings, solar cells, thin-film electronics, and as a precursor for CZTS (Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide) thin films. Post-deposition sintering of CuxS nanoparticle films is a key process that affects the film properties and hence determines its operational characteristics in the above applications. Intense pulse light (IPL) sintering uses visible broad-spectrum xenon light to rapidly sinter nanoparticle films over large-areas, and ismore »compatible with methods such as roll-to-roll deposition for large-area deposition of colloidal nanoparticle films and patterns. This paper experimentally examines the effect of IPL parameters on sintering of CuxS thin films. As-deposited and sintered films are compared in terms of their crystal structure, as well as optical and electrical properties, as a function of the IPL parameters.« less
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  8. Abstract The energy response of the ATLAS calorimeter is measured for single charged pions with transverse momentum in the range $$10more »situ single-particle measurements. The calorimeter response to single-pions is observed to be overestimated by $${\sim }2\%$$ ∼ 2 % across a large part of the $$p_{\text {T}}$$ p T spectrum in the central region and underestimated by $${\sim }4\%$$ ∼ 4 % in the endcaps in the ATLAS simulation. The uncertainties in the measurements are $${\lesssim }1\%$$ ≲ 1 % for $$15« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023