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  1. Strain-engineering is a powerful means to tune the polar, structural, and electronic instabilities of incipient ferroelectrics. KTaO3 is near a polar instability and shows anisotropic superconductivity in electron-doped samples. Here, we demonstrate growth of high-quality KTaO3 thin films by molecular-beam epitaxy. Tantalum was provided by either a suboxide source emanating a TaO2 flux from Ta2O5 contained in a conventional effusion cell or an electron-beam-heated tantalum source. Excess potassium and a combination of ozone and oxygen (10% O3 + 90% O2) were simultaneously supplied with the TaO2 (or tantalum) molecular beams to grow the KTaO3 films. Laue fringes suggest that the films are smooth with an abrupt film/substrate interface. Cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy does not show any extended defects and confirms that the films have an atomically abrupt interface with the substrate. Atomic force microscopy reveals atomic steps at the surface of the grown films. Reciprocal space mapping demonstrates that the films, when sufficiently thin, are coherently strained to the SrTiO3 (001) and GdScO3 (110) substrates. 
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  2. Strain-engineering is a powerful means to tune the polar, structural, and electronic instabilities of incipient ferroelectrics. KTaO 3 is near a polar instability and shows anisotropic superconductivity in electron-doped samples. Here, we demonstrate growth of high-quality KTaO 3 thin films by molecular-beam epitaxy. Tantalum was provided by either a suboxide source emanating a TaO 2 flux from Ta 2 O 5 contained in a conventional effusion cell or an electron-beam-heated tantalum source. Excess potassium and a combination of ozone and oxygen (10% O 3 + 90% O 2 ) were simultaneously supplied with the TaO 2 (or tantalum) molecular beams to grow the KTaO 3 films. Laue fringes suggest that the films are smooth with an abrupt film/substrate interface. Cross-sectional scanning transmission electron microscopy does not show any extended defects and confirms that the films have an atomically abrupt interface with the substrate. Atomic force microscopy reveals atomic steps at the surface of the grown films. Reciprocal space mapping demonstrates that the films, when sufficiently thin, are coherently strained to the SrTiO 3 (001) and GdScO 3 (110) substrates. 
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  3. We demonstrate the epitaxial growth of the first two members, and the [Formula: see text] member of the homologous Ruddlesden–Popper series of [Formula: see text] of which the [Formula: see text] member was previously unknown. The films were grown by suboxide molecular-beam epitaxy where the indium is provided by a molecular beam of indium-suboxide [[Formula: see text]O (g)]. To facilitate ex situ characterization of the highly hygroscopic barium indate films, a capping layer of amorphous [Formula: see text] was deposited prior to air exposure. The structural quality of the films was assessed by x-ray diffraction, reflective high-energy electron diffraction, and scanning transmission electron microscopy. 
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  4. We outline a method to synthesize ( ATiO 3 ) n AO Ruddlesden–Popper phases with high- n, where the A-site is a mixture of barium and strontium, by molecular-beam epitaxy. The precision and consistency of the method described is demonstrated by the growth of an unprecedented (SrTiO 3 ) 50 SrO epitaxial film. We proceed to investigate barium incorporation into the Ruddlesden–Popper structure, which is limited to a few percent in bulk, and we find that the amount of barium that can be incorporated depends on both the substrate temperature and the strain state of the film. At the optimal growth temperature, we demonstrate that as much as 33% barium can homogeneously populate the A-site when films are grown on SrTiO 3 (001) substrates, whereas up to 60% barium can be accommodated in films grown on TbScO 3 (110) substrates, which we attribute to the difference in strain. This detailed synthetic study of high n, metastable Ruddlesden–Popper phases is pertinent to a variety of fields from quantum materials to tunable dielectrics. 
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  5. Utilizing the powerful combination of molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES), we produce and study the effect of different terminating layers on the electronic structure of the metallic delafossite PdCoO 2 . Attempts to introduce unpaired electrons and synthesize new antiferromagnetic metals akin to the isostructural compound PdCrO 2 have been made by replacing cobalt with iron in PdCoO 2 films grown by MBE. Using ARPES, we observe similar bulk bands in these PdCoO 2 films with Pd-, CoO 2 -, and FeO 2 -termination. Nevertheless, Pd- and CoO 2 -terminated films show a reduced intensity of surface states. Additionally, we are able to epitaxially stabilize PdFe x Co 1− x O 2 films that show an anomaly in the derivative of the electrical resistance with respect to temperature at 20 K, but do not display pronounced magnetic order. 
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  6. Ferroelectric nanomaterials offer the promise of switchable electronic properties at the surface, with implications for photo- and electrocatalysis. Studies to date on the effect of ferroelectric surfaces in electrocatalysis have been primarily limited to nanoparticle systems where complex interfaces arise. Here, we use MBE-grown epitaxial BaTiO3 thin films with atomically sharp interfaces as model surfaces to demonstrate the effect of ferroelectric polarization on the electronic structure, intermediate binding energy, and electrochemical activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Surface spectroscopy and ab initio DFT +U calculations of the well-defined (001) surfaces indicate that an upward polarized surface reduces the work function relative to downward polarization and leads to a smaller HER barrier, in agreement with the higher activity observed experimentally. Employing ferroelectric polarization to create multiple adsorbate interactions over a single electrocatalytic surface, as demonstrated in this work, may offer new opportunities for nanoscale catalysis design beyond traditional descriptors. 
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