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  1. Kneifel, Stefan (Ed.)
    Observations collected during the 25-February-2020 deployment of the Vapor In-Cloud Profiling Radar at the Stony Brook Radar Observatory clearly demonstrate the potential of G-band radars for cloud and precipitation research, something that until now was only discussed in theory. The field experiment, which coordinated an X-, Ka, W- and G-band radar, revealed that the Ka-G pairing can generate differential reflectivity signal several decibels larger than the traditional Ka-W pairing underpinning an increased sensitivity to smaller amounts of liquid and ice water mass and sizes. The observations also showed that G-band signals experience non-Rayleigh scattering in regions where Ka- and W-bandmore »signal don’t, thus demonstrating the potential of G-band radars for sizing sub-millimeter ice crystals and droplets. Observed peculiar radar reflectivity patterns also suggest that G-band radars could be used to gain insight into the melting behavior of small ice crystals. G-band signal interpretation is challenging because attenuation and non-Rayleigh effects are typically intertwined. An ideal liquid-free period allowed us to use triple frequency Ka-W-G observations to test existing ice scattering libraries and the results raise questions on their comprehensiveness. Overall, this work reinforces the importance of deploying radars with 1) sensitivity sufficient to detect small Rayleigh scatters at cloud top in order to derive estimates of path integrated hydrometeor attenuation, a key constraint for microphysical retrievals, 2) sensitivity sufficient to overcome liquid attenuation, to reveal the larger differential signals generated from using G-band as part of a multifrequency deployment, and 3) capable of monitoring atmospheric gases to reduce related uncertainty« less