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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  2. Abstract We forecast the number of galaxy clusters that can be detected via the thermal Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (tSZ) signals by future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, primarily the wide area survey of the CMB-S4 experiment but also CMB-S4's smaller de-lensing survey and the proposed CMB-HD experiment. We predict that CMB-S4 will detect 75,000 clusters with its wide survey of f sky = 50% and 14,000 clusters with its deep survey of f sky = 3%. Of these, approximately 1350 clusters will be at z ≥ 2, a regime that is difficult to probe by optical or X-ray surveys. We assume CMB-HD will survey the same sky as the S4-Wide, and find that CMB-HD will detect three times more overall and an order of magnitude more z ≥ 2 clusters than CMB-S4. These results include galactic and extragalactic foregrounds along with atmospheric and instrumental noise. Using CMB-cluster lensing to calibrate the cluster tSZ–mass scaling relation, we combine cluster counts with primary CMB to obtain cosmological constraints for a two-parameter extension of the standard model (ΛCDM + ∑ m ν + w 0 ). In addition to constraining σ ( w 0 ) to ≲1%, we find that both surveys can enable amore »∼2.5–4.5 σ detection of ∑ m ν , substantially strengthening CMB-only constraints. We also study the evolution of the intracluster medium by modeling the cluster virialization v( z ) and find tight constraints from CMB-S4, with further factors of three to four improvement for CMB-HD.« less
  3. Abstract

    It is important to understand the cycle of baryons through the circumgalactic medium (CGM) in the context of galaxy formation and evolution. In this study, we forecast constraints on the feedback processes heating the CGM with current and future Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) observations. To constrain these processes, we use a suite of cosmological simulations, the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations (CAMELS). CAMELS varies four different feedback parameters of two previously existing hydrodynamical simulations, IllustrisTNG and SIMBA. We capture the dependences of SZ radial profiles on these feedback parameters with an emulator, calculate their derivatives, and forecast future constraints on these feedback parameters from upcoming experiments. We find that for a galaxy sample similar to what would be obtained with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument at the Simons Observatory, all four feedback parameters can be constrained (some within the 10% level), indicating that future observations will be able to further restrict the parameter space for these subgrid models. Given the modeled galaxy sample and forecasted errors in this work, we find that the inner SZ profiles contribute more to the constraining power than the outer profiles. Finally, we find that, despite the wide range of parameter variation in activemore »galactic feedback in the CAMELS simulation suite, we cannot reproduce the thermal SZ signal of galaxies selected by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey as measured by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope.

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  4. Abstract

    The thermal Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (tSZ) effect is a powerful tool with the potential for constraining directly the properties of the hot gas that dominates dark matter halos because it measures pressure and thus thermal energy density. Studying this hot component of the circumgalactic medium (CGM) is important because it is strongly impacted by star formation and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity in galaxies, participating in the feedback loop that regulates star and black hole mass growth in galaxies. We study the tSZ effect across a wide halo-mass range using three cosmological hydrodynamical simulations: Illustris-TNG, EAGLE, and FIRE-2. Specifically, we present the scaling relation between the tSZ signal and halo mass and the (mass-weighted) radial profiles of gas density, temperature, and pressure for all three simulations. The analysis includes comparisons to Planck tSZ observations and to the thermal pressure profile inferred from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) measurements. We compare these tSZ data to simulations to interpret the measurements in terms of feedback and accretion processes in the CGM. We also identify as-yet unobserved potential signatures of these processes that may be visible in future measurements, which will have the capability of measuring tSZ signals to even lower masses. We alsomore »perform internal comparisons between runs with different physical assumptions. We conclude (1) there is strong evidence for the impact of feedback atR500, but that this impact decreases by 5R500, and (2) the thermodynamic profiles of the CGM are highly dependent on the implemented model, such as cosmic-ray or AGN feedback prescriptions.

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  5. Abstract We present the Cosmology and Astrophysics with Machine Learning Simulations (CAMELS) Multifield Data set (CMD), a collection of hundreds of thousands of 2D maps and 3D grids containing many different properties of cosmic gas, dark matter, and stars from more than 2000 distinct simulated universes at several cosmic times. The 2D maps and 3D grids represent cosmic regions that span ∼100 million light-years and have been generated from thousands of state-of-the-art hydrodynamic and gravity-only N -body simulations from the CAMELS project. Designed to train machine-learning models, CMD is the largest data set of its kind containing more than 70 TB of data. In this paper we describe CMD in detail and outline a few of its applications. We focus our attention on one such task, parameter inference, formulating the problems we face as a challenge to the community. We release all data and provide further technical details at .
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  7. Abstract

    We present a detailed overview of the science goals and predictions for the Prime-Cam direct-detection camera–spectrometer being constructed by the CCAT-prime collaboration for dedicated use on the Fred Young Submillimeter Telescope (FYST). The FYST is a wide-field, 6 m aperture submillimeter telescope being built (first light in late 2023) by an international consortium of institutions led by Cornell University and sited at more than 5600 m on Cerro Chajnantor in northern Chile. Prime-Cam is one of two instruments planned for FYST and will provide unprecedented spectroscopic and broadband measurement capabilities to address important astrophysical questions ranging from Big Bang cosmology through reionization and the formation of the first galaxies to star formation within our own Milky Way. Prime-Cam on the FYST will have a mapping speed that is over 10 times greater than existing and near-term facilities for high-redshift science and broadband polarimetric imaging at frequencies above 300 GHz. We describe details of the science program enabled by this system and our preliminary survey strategies.


    We report a significant detection of the hot intergalactic medium in the filamentary bridge connecting the galaxy clusters Abell 399 and Abell 401. This result is enabled by a low-noise, high-resolution map of the thermal Sunyaev–Zeldovich signal from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and Planck satellite. The ACT data provide the 1.65 arcmin resolution that allows us to clearly separate the profiles of the clusters, whose centres are separated by 37 arcmin, from the gas associated with the filament. A model that fits for only the two clusters is ruled out compared to one that includes a bridge component at >5σ. Using a gas temperature determined from Suzaku X-ray data, we infer a total mass of $(3.3\pm 0.7)\times 10^{14}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ associated with the filament, comprising about 8 per cent of the entire Abell 399–Abell 401 system. We fit two phenomenological models to the filamentary structure; the favoured model has a width transverse to the axis joining the clusters of ${\sim }1.9\, \mathrm{Mpc}$. When combined with the Suzaku data, we find a gas density of $(0.88\pm 0.24)\times 10^{-4}\, \mathrm{cm}^{-3}$, considerably lower than previously reported. We show that this can be fully explained by a geometry in which the axis joining Abell 399 and Abell 401more »has a large component along the line of sight, such that the distance between the clusters is significantly greater than the $3.2\, \mathrm{Mpc}$ projected separation on the plane of the sky. Finally, we present initial results from higher resolution (12.7 arcsec effective) imaging of the bridge with the MUSTANG-2 receiver on the Green Bank Telescope.

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