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  1. null (Ed.)
    This paper proposes a finite-precision decoding method for low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes that features the three steps of Reconstruction, Computation, and Quantization (RCQ). Unlike Mutual-Information-Maximization Quantized Belief Propagation (MIM-QBP), RCQ can approximate either belief propagation or Min-Sum decoding. MIM-QBP decoders do not work well when the fraction of degree-2 variable nodes is large. However, sometimes a large fraction of degree-2 variable nodes is used to facilitate a fast encoding structure, as seen in the IEEE 802.11 standard and the DVB-S2 standard. In contrast to MIM-QBP, the proposed RCQ decoder may be applied to any off-the-shelf LDPC code, including those with a large fraction of degree-2 variable nodes. Simulations show that a 4-bit Min-Sum RCQ decoder delivers frame error rate (FER) performance within 0.1 dB of floating point belief propagation (BP) for the IEEE 802.11 standard LDPC code in the low SNR region. The RCQ decoder actually outperforms floating point BP and Min-Sum in the high SNR region were FER less than 10 −5 . This paper also introduces Hierarchical Dynamic Quantization (HDQ) to design the time-varying non-uniform quantizers required by RCQ decoders. HDQ is a low-complexity design technique that is slightly sub-optimal. Simulation results comparing HDQ and optimal quantization on the symmetric binary-input memoryless additive white Gaussian noise channel show a mutual information loss of less than 10 −6 bits, which is negligible in practice. 
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  2. The new 5G communications standard increases data rates and supports low-latency communication that places constraints on the computational complexity of channel decoders. 5G low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes have the so-called protograph-based raptor-like (PBRL) structure which offers inherent rate-compatibility and excellent performance. Practical LDPC decoder implementations use message-passing decoding with finite precision, which becomes coarse as complexity is more severely constrained. Performance degrades as the precision becomes more coarse. Recently, the information bottleneck (IB) method was used to design mutual-information-maximizing lookup tables that replace conventional finite-precision node computations. The IB approach exchanges messages represented by integers with very small bit width. This paper extends the IB principle to the flexible class of PBRL LDPC codes as standardized in 5G. The extensions include puncturing and rate-compatible IB decoder design. As an example of the new approach, a 4-bit information bottleneck decoder is evaluated for PBRL LDPC codes over a typical range of rates. Frame error rate simulations show that the proposed scheme outperforms offset min-sum decoding algorithms and operates very close to double-precision sum-product belief propagation decoding. 
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  3. null (Ed.)