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  1. The multiexpedition Integrated Ocean Drilling Program/International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) project was designed to investigate fault mechanics and seismogenesis along subduction megathrusts through direct sampling, in situ measurements, and long-term monitoring in conjunction with allied laboratory and numerical modeling studies. Overall NanTroSEIZE scientific objectives include characterizing the nature of fault slip and strain accumulation, fault and wall rock composition, fault architecture, and state variables throughout the active plate boundary system. Expedition 380 was the twelfth NanTroSEIZE expedition since 2007. Refer to Kopf et al. (2017) for a comprehensive summary of objectives, operations, and resultsmore »during the first 11 expeditions. Expedition 380 focused on one primary objective: riserless deployment of a long-term borehole monitoring system (LTBMS) in Hole C0006G in the overriding plate at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism. The LTBMS installed in Hole C0006G incorporates multilevel pore-pressure sensing and a volumetric strainmeter, tiltmeter, geophone, broadband seismometer, accelerometer, and thermistor string. Similar previous LTBMS installations were completed farther upslope at IODP Sites C0002 and C0010. The ~35 km trench–normal transect of three LTBMS installations will provide monitoring within and above regions of contrasting behavior in the megasplay fault and the plate boundary as a whole, including a site above the updip edge of the locked zone (Site C0002), a shallow site in the megasplay fault zone and its footwall (Site C0010), and a site at the tip of the accretionary prism (the Expedition 380 installation at Site C0006). In combination, this suite of observatories has the potential to capture stress and deformation spanning a wide range of timescales (e.g., seismic and microseismic activity, slow slip, and interseismic strain accumulation) across the transect from near-trench to the seismogenic zone. Expedition 380 achieved its primary scientific and operational goal with successful installation of the LTBMS to a total depth of 457 m below seafloor in Hole C0006G. The installation was conducted in considerably less time than budgeted, partly because the Kuroshio Current had shifted away from the NanTroSEIZE area after 10 y of seriously affecting D/V Chikyu NanTroSEIZE operations. After Expedition 380, the LTBMS was successfully connected to the Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (DONET) in March 2018 using the remotely operated vehicle Hyper-Dolphin from the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC) R/V Shinsei Maru.« less
  2. The multiexpedition Integrated Ocean Drilling Program/International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) was designed to investigate fault mechanics and seismogenesis along subduction megathrusts through direct sampling, in situ measurements, and long-term monitoring in conjunction with allied laboratory and numerical modeling studies. Overall NanTroSEIZE scientific objectives include characterizing the nature of fault slip and strain accumulation, fault and wall rock composition, fault architecture, and state variables throughout the active plate boundary system. Expedition 380 was the twelfth NanTroSEIZE expedition since 2007. Refer to Kopf et al. (2017) for a comprehensive summary of objectives, operations, and results duringmore »the first 11 expeditions. Expedition 380 focused on one primary objective: riserless deployment of a long-term borehole monitoring system (LTBMS) in Hole C0006G in the overriding plate at the toe of the Nankai accretionary prism. The LTBMS installed in Hole C0006G incorporates multilevel pore pressure sensing and a volumetric strainmeter, tiltmeter, geophone, broadband seismometer, accelerometer, and thermistor string. Similar previous LTBMS installations were completed farther upslope at IODP Sites C0002 and C0010. The ~35 km trench-normal transect of three LTBMS installations will provide monitoring within and above regions of contrasting behavior in the megasplay fault and the plate boundary as a whole, including a site above the updip edge of the locked zone (Site C0002), a shallow site in the megasplay fault zone and its footwall (Site C0010), and a site at the tip of the accretionary prism (the Expedition 380 installation at Site C0006). In combination, this suite of observatories has the potential to capture stress and deformation spanning a wide range of timescales (e.g., seismic and microseismic activity, slow slip, and interseismic strain accumulation) across the transect from near-trench to the seismogenic zone. Expedition 380 achieved its primary scientific and operational goal with successful installation of the LTBMS to a total depth of 457 m below seafloor in Hole C0006G. The installation was conducted in considerably less time than budgeted, partly because the Kuroshio Current had shifted away from the NanTroSEIZE area after 10 y of seriously affecting D/V Chikyu NanTroSEIZE operations. After Expedition 380, the LTBMS was to be connected to the Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis in March 2018 using the remotely operated vehicle Hyper-Dolphin from the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology R/V Shinsei Maru.« less
  3. Abstract The accurate simulation of additional interactions at the ATLAS experiment for the analysis of proton–proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider presents a significant challenge to the computing resources. During the LHC Run 2 (2015–2018), there were up to 70 inelastic interactions per bunch crossing, which need to be accounted for in Monte Carlo (MC) production. In this document, a new method to account for these additional interactions in the simulation chain is described. Instead of sampling the inelastic interactions and adding their energy deposits to a hard-scatter interaction one-by-one, the inelastic interactions are presampled, independent of the hardmore »scatter, and stored as combined events. Consequently, for each hard-scatter interaction, only one such presampled event needs to be added as part of the simulation chain. For the Run 2 simulation chain, with an average of 35 interactions per bunch crossing, this new method provides a substantial reduction in MC production CPU needs of around 20%, while reproducing the properties of the reconstructed quantities relevant for physics analyses with good accuracy.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. Abstract The ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider has a broad physics programme ranging from precision measurements to direct searches for new particles and new interactions, requiring ever larger and ever more accurate datasets of simulated Monte Carlo events. Detector simulation with Geant4 is accurate but requires significant CPU resources. Over the past decade, ATLAS has developed and utilized tools that replace the most CPU-intensive component of the simulation—the calorimeter shower simulation—with faster simulation methods. Here, AtlFast3, the next generation of high-accuracy fast simulation in ATLAS, is introduced. AtlFast3 combines parameterized approaches with machine-learning techniques and is deployed tomore »meet current and future computing challenges, and simulation needs of the ATLAS experiment. With highly accurate performance and significantly improved modelling of substructure within jets, AtlFast3 can simulate large numbers of events for a wide range of physics processes.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  5. The Nankai Trough Seismogenic Zone Experiment (NanTroSEIZE) program is a coordinated, multiexpedition drilling project designed to investigate fault mechanics and seismogenesis along subduction megathrusts through direct sampling, in situ measurements, and long-term monitoring in conjunction with allied laboratory and numerical modeling studies. The fundamental scientific objectives of the NanTroSEIZE drilling project include characterizing the nature of fault slip and strain accumulation, fault and wall rock composition, fault architecture, and state variables throughout the active plate boundary system. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 380 will deploy a permanent long-term borehole monitoring system (LTBMS) in a new cased hole at Sitemore »C0006 above the frontal thrust, where previous expeditions have conducted logging-while-drilling and coring operations. This deployment will be the third borehole observatory deployed as part of the NanTroSEIZE program, and it will extend the existing NanTroSEIZE LTBMS network seaward to include the frontal thrust region of the Nankai accretionary prism. This expedition will cover a period of 40 days, beginning on 12 January 2018 and ending on 24 February. The LTBMS sensors will include seafloor reference and formation pressure sensors, a thermistor string, a broadband seismometer, a tiltmeter, a volumetric strainmeter, geophones, and accelerometers. The casing plan does not include a screened interval for this LTBMS; the monitoring zone will be isolated from the seafloor by a swellable packer (inside the casing) and cement at the casing shoe. This LTBMS will be later linked to the Dense Oceanfloor Network System for Earthquakes and Tsunamis (DONET) submarine network. This Scientific Prospectus outlines the scientific rationale, objectives, and operational plans for Site C0006. A congruent “NanTroSEIZE Investigation at Sea” will convene researchers aboard the D/V Chikyu to use the latest techniques and equipment to reexamine cores, shipboard measurement data (including X-ray computed tomography scans), and logging-while-drilling data collected during NanTroSEIZE Stage 1 in 2007.« less
  6. Abstract The Surface Enhancement of the IceTop air-shower array will include the addition of radio antennas and scintillator panels, co-located with the existing ice-Cherenkov tanks and covering an area of about 1 km 2 . Together, these will increase the sensitivity of the IceCube Neutrino Observatory to the electromagnetic and muonic components of cosmic-ray-induced air showers at the South Pole. The inclusion of the radio technique necessitates an expanded set of simulation and analysis tools to explore the radio-frequency emission from air showers in the 70 MHz to 350 MHz band. In this paper we describe the software modules thatmore »have been developed to work with time- and frequency-domain information within IceCube's existing software framework, IceTray, which is used by the entire IceCube collaboration. The software includes a method by which air-shower simulation, generated using CoREAS, can be reused via waveform interpolation, thus overcoming a significant computational hurdle in the field.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  8. Abstract We present a measurement of the high-energy astrophysical muon–neutrino flux with the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. The measurement uses a high-purity selection of 650k neutrino-induced muon tracks from the northern celestial hemisphere, corresponding to 9.5 yr of experimental data. With respect to previous publications, the measurement is improved by the increased size of the event sample and the extended model testing beyond simple power-law hypotheses. An updated treatment of systematic uncertainties and atmospheric background fluxes has been implemented based on recent models. The best-fit single power-law parameterization for the astrophysical energy spectrum results in a normalization of ϕ @ 100more »TeV ν μ + ν ¯ μ = 1.44 − 0.26 + 0.25 × 10 − 18 GeV − 1 cm − 2 s − 1 sr − 1 and a spectral index γ SPL = 2.37 − 0.09 + 0.09 , constrained in the energy range from 15 TeV to 5 PeV. The model tests include a single power law with a spectral cutoff at high energies, a log-parabola model, several source-class-specific flux predictions from the literature, and a model-independent spectral unfolding. The data are consistent with a single power-law hypothesis, however, spectra with softening above one PeV are statistically more favorable at a two-sigma level.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  9. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory at the South Pole has measured the diffuse astrophysical neutrino flux up to ~PeV energies and is starting to identify first point source candidates. The next generation facility, IceCube-Gen2, aims at extending the accessible energy range to EeV in order to measure the continuation of the astrophysical spectrum, to identify neutrino sources, and to search for a cosmogenic neutrino flux. As part of IceCube-Gen2, a radio array is foreseen that is sensitive to detect Askaryan emission of neutrinos beyond ~30 PeV. Surface and deep antenna stations have different benefits in terms of effective area, resolution, andmore »the capability to reject backgrounds from cosmic-ray air showers and may be combined to reach the best sensitivity. The optimal detector configuration is still to be identified. This contribution presents the full-array simulation efforts for a combination of deep and surface antennas, and compares different design options with respect to their sensitivity to fulfill the science goals of IceCube-Gen2.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 18, 2023
  10. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory opened the window on high-energy neutrino astronomy by confirming the existence of PeV astrophysical neutrinos and identifying the first compelling astrophysical neutrino source in the blazar TXS0506+056. Planning is underway to build an enlarged detector, IceCube-Gen2, which will extend measurements to higher energies, increase the rate of observed cosmic neutrinos and provide improved prospects for detecting fainter sources. IceCube-Gen2 is planned to have an extended in-ice optical array, a radio array at shallower depths for detecting ultra-high-energy (>100 PeV) neutrinos, and a surface component studying cosmic rays. In this contribution, we will discuss the simulation ofmore »the in-ice optical component of the baseline design of the IceCube-Gen2 detector, which foresees the deployment of an additional ~120 new detection strings to the existing 86 in IceCube over ~7 Antarctic summer seasons. Motivated by the phased construction plan for IceCube-Gen2, we discuss how the reconstruction capabilities and sensitivities of the instrument are expected to progress throughout its deployment.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 18, 2023