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  1. p-Type molecular dopants are a class of high electron affinity (EA) molecules used to ionize organic electronic materials for device applications. It is extremely challenging to ionize high-performance, high-ionization energy (IE) polymers because the dopant molecule needs to be compatible with solution processing. Here, we describe the synthesis and characterization of two new solution processable molecular dopants with the highest EA values yet reported. These molecules, based on the parent hexacyanotrimethylenecyclopropane (CN6-CP) structure, achieve solubility by the substitution of one or more of the cyano groups with esters, which both reduces the volatility relative to CN6-CP and allows for solution processing. The efficacy of these new molecular dopants, which have EA values up to 5.75 eV with respect to vacuum, was tested by performing sequential solution doping experiments with a series of thiophene and alternating diketopyrrolopyrrole polymers with IEs ranging from 5.10 eV to 5.63 eV. For completeness, the new dopant results are compared to a previously reported tri-ester substituted CN6-CP analogue with an EA of 5.50 EV. The increased EA of these stronger dopants induces a 10–100 fold increase in film conductivity and saturation of the conductivity at 15–100 S cm −1 for almost all polymers tested. These new dopant structures enable controlled solution doping at high doping levels for most alternating co-polymers of interest to the organic electronics community. 
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  3. There is a critical need to develop a method to pattern semiconducting polymers for device applications on the sub-micrometer scale. Dopant induced solubility control (DISC) patterning is a recently published method for patterning semiconductor polymers that has demonstrated sub-micron resolution. DISC relies on the sequential addition of molecular dopants (here 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ)) to the conjugated polymer. In doped areas, the conjugated polymer is protected from dissolution while in undoped areas, the polymer dissolves into solution. Here we examine factors that affect the resolution of the developed pattern. Two factors are determined to be critical to pattern resolution, the initial crystallinity of the polymer, here poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT), and the quality of the development solvent. We find that dopants diffuse more readily in highly crystalline films than in amorphous films of P3HT and that dopant diffusion reduces the fidelity of the resulting pattern. We also find that the choice of development solvent affects both the fidelity of the pattern and dopant distribution within the patterned polymer domains. Finally, we show that a dopant that diffuses more slowly than F4TCNQ in the P3HT film can be used to pattern the film with higher fidelity. These results together provide a road map for optimizing additive DISC patterning for any polymer/dopant pair. 
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  4. When an organic semiconductor (OSC) is blended with an electron acceptor molecule that can act as a p-type dopant, there should ideally be complete (integer) transfer of charge from the OSC to the dopant. However, some dopant–OSC blends instead form charge transfer complexes (CTCs), characterized by fractional charge transfer (CT) and strong orbital hybridization between the two molecules. Fractional CT doping does not efficiently generate free charge carriers, but it is unclear what conditions lead to incomplete charge transfer. Here we show that by modifying film processing conditions in the semiconductor–dopant couple poly(3-hexylthiophene):2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8,-tetracyanoquinodimethane (P3HT:F4TCNQ), we can selectively obtain nearly pure integer or fractional CT phases. Fractional CT films show electrical conductivities approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than corresponding integer CT films, and remarkably different optical absorption spectra. Grazing incidence wide-angle X-ray diffraction (GIXD) reveals that fractional CT films display an unusually dense and well-ordered crystal structure. These films show lower paracrystallinity and shorter lamellar and π-stacking distances than undoped films processed under similar conditions. Using plane-wave DFT we obtain a structure with unit cell parameters closely matching those observed by GIXD. This first-ever observation of both fractional and integer CT in a single OSC–dopant system demonstrates the importance of structural effects on OSC doping and opens the door to further studies. 
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  5. Abstract

    Recent development of dopant induced solubility control (DISC) patterning of polymer semiconductors has enabled direct‐write optical patterning of poly‐3‐hexylthiophene (P3HT) with diffraction limited resolution. Here, the optical DISC patterning technique to the most simple circuit element, a wire, is applied. Optical patterning of P3HT and P3HT doped with the molecular dopant 2,3,5,6‐tetrafluoro‐7,7,8,8‐tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ) wires with dimensions of 20–70 nm thickness, 200–900 nm width, and 40 μm length is demonstrated. In addition, optical patterning of wire patterns like “L” bends and “T” junctions without changing the diameter or thickness of the wires at the junctions is demonstrated. The wires themselves show up to 0.034 S cm‐1conductance when sequentially doped. It is also demonstrated that a P3HT nanowire can be doped, de‐doped, and re‐doped from solution without changing the dimension of the wire. The combined abilities to optically pattern and reversibly dope a polymer semiconductor represents a full suite of patterning steps equivalent to photolithography for inorganic semiconductors.

     
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