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  1. ABSTRACT

    Observational surveys have found that the dynamical masses of ultradiffuse galaxies (UDGs) correlate with the richness of their globular cluster (GC) system. This could be explained if GC-rich galaxies formed in more massive dark matter haloes. We use simulations of galaxies and their GC systems from the E-MOSAICS project to test whether the simulations reproduce such a trend. We find that GC-rich simulated galaxies in galaxy groups have enclosed masses that are consistent with the dynamical masses of observed GC-rich UDGs. However, simulated GC-poor galaxies in galaxy groups have higher enclosed masses than those observed. We argue that GC-poor UDGs with low stellar velocity dispersions are discs observed nearly face on, such that their true mass is underestimated by observations. Using the simulations, we show that galactic star formation conditions resulting in dispersion-supported stellar systems also leads to efficient GC formation. Conversely, conditions leading to rotationally supported discs lead to inefficient GC formation. This result may explain why early-type galaxies typically have richer GC systems than late-type galaxies. This is also supported by comparisons of stellar axis ratios and GC-specific frequencies in observed dwarf galaxy samples, which show GC-rich systems are consistent with being spheroidal, while GC-poor systems are consistent with being discs. Therefore, particularly for GC-poor galaxies, rotation should be included in dynamical mass measurements from stellar dynamics.

     
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  2. ABSTRACT

    Compact elliptical (cE) galaxies remain an elusively difficult galaxy class to study. Recent observations have suggested that isolated and host-associated cEs have different formation pathways, while simulation studies have also shown different pathways can lead to a cE galaxy. However, a solid link has not been established, and the relative contributions of each pathway in a cosmological context remains unknown. Here, we combine a spatially resolved observational sample of cEs taken from the Sydney-AAO Multi-object Integral field spectrograph Galaxy Survey with a matched sample of galaxies within the IllustrisTNG cosmological simulation to establish an overall picture of how these galaxies form. The observed cEs located near a host galaxy appear redder, smaller, and older than isolated cEs, supporting previous evidence for multiple formation pathways. Tracing the simulated cEs back through time, we find two main formation pathways; 32 ± 5 per cent formed via the stripping of a spiral galaxy by a larger host galaxy, while 68 ± 4 per cent formed through a gradual build-up of stellar mass in isolated environments. We confirm that cEs in different environments do indeed form via different pathways, with all isolated cEs in our sample having formed via in situ formation (i.e. none were ejected from a previous host), and 77 ± 6 per cent of host-associated cEs having formed via tidal stripping. Separating them by their formation pathway, we are able to reproduce the observed differences between isolated and host-associated cEs, showing that these differences can be fully explained by the different formation pathways dominating in each environment.

     
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  3. ABSTRACT

    We study the present-day rotational velocity (Vrot) and velocity dispersion (σ) profiles of the globular cluster (GC) systems in a sample of 50 lenticular (S0) galaxies from the E-MOSAICS galaxy formation simulations. We find that $82{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of the galaxies have GCs that are rotating along the photometric major axis of the galaxy (aligned), while the remaining $18{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ of the galaxies do not (misaligned). This is generally consistent with the observations from the SLUGGS survey. For the aligned galaxies, classified as peaked and outwardly decreasing ($49{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$), flat ($24{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$), and increasing ($27{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$) based on the Vrot/σ profiles out to large radii, we do not find any clear correlation between these present-day Vrot/σ profiles of the GCs and the past merger histories of the S0 galaxies, unlike in previous simulations of galaxy stars. For just over half of the misaligned galaxies, we find that the GC misalignment is the result of a major merger within the last $10\, \mathrm{Gyr}$ so that the ex-situ GCs are misaligned by an angle between 0° (co-rotation) and 180° (counter-rotation), with respect to the in situ GCs, depending on the orbital configuration of the merging galaxies. For the remaining misaligned galaxies, we suggest that the in situ metal-poor GCs, formed at early times, have undergone more frequent kinematic perturbations than the in situ metal-rich GCs. We also find that the GCs accreted early and the in situ GCs are predominantly located within 0.2 virial radii (R200) from the centre of galaxies in 3D phase-space diagrams.

     
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  4. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT It has been proposed that S0 galaxies are either fading spirals or the result of galaxy mergers. The relative contribution of each pathway and the environments in which they occur remain unknown. Here, we investigate stellar and gas kinematics of 219 S0s in the SAMI Survey to look for signs of multiple formation pathways occurring across the full range of environments. We identify a large range of rotational support in their stellar kinematics, which correspond to ranges in their physical structure. We find that pressure-supported S0s with v/σ below 0.5 tend to be more compact and feature misaligned stellar and gas components, suggesting an external origin for their gas. We postulate that these S0s are consistent with being formed through a merger process. Meanwhile, comparisons of ellipticity, stellar mass, and Sérsic index distributions with spiral galaxies show that the rotationally supported S0s with v/σ above 0.5 are more consistent with a faded spiral origin. In addition, a simulated merger pathway involving a compact elliptical and gas-rich satellite results in an S0 that lies within the pressure-supported group. We conclude that two S0 formation pathways are active, with mergers dominating in isolated galaxies and small groups, and the faded spiral pathway being most prominent in large groups ($10^{13}\lt \rm {M_{halo}}\lt 10^{14}$). 
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