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Biosynthesis and secretion of the microbial sulfated peptide RaxX and binding to the rice XA21 immune receptor
The rice immune receptor XA21 is activated by the sulfated microbial peptide required for activation of XA21-mediated immunity X (RaxX) produced by
Xanthomonas oryzaepv. oryzae( Xoo). Mutational studies and targeted proteomics revealed that the RaxX precursor peptide (proRaxX) is processed and secreted by the protease/transporter RaxB, the function of which can be partially fulfilled by a noncognate peptidase-containing transporter component B (PctB). proRaxX is cleaved at a Gly–Gly motif, yielding a mature peptide that retains the necessary elements for RaxX function as an immunogen and host peptide hormone mimic. These results indicate that RaxX is a prokaryotic member of a previously unclassified and understudied group of eukaryotic tyrosine sulfated ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified peptides (RiPPs). We further demonstrate that sulfated RaxX directly binds XA21 with high affinity. This work reveals a complete, previously uncharacterized biological process: bacterial RiPP biosynthesis, secretion, binding to a eukaryotic receptor, and triggering of a robust host immune response.