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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  2. Abstract Spt-Ada-Gcn5-Acetyltransferase (SAGA) is a conserved multi-subunit complex that activates RNA polymerase II-mediated transcription by acetylating and deubiquitinating nucleosomal histones and by recruiting TATA box binding protein (TBP) to DNA. The prototypical yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae SAGA contains 19 subunits that are organized into Tra1, core, histone acetyltransferase, and deubiquitination modules. Recent cryo-electron microscopy studies have generated high-resolution structural information on the Tra1 and core modules of yeast SAGA. However, the two catalytical modules were poorly resolved due to conformational flexibility of the full assembly. Furthermore, the high sample requirement created a formidable barrier to further structural investigations of SAGA. Here, we report a workflow for isolating/stabilizing yeast SAGA and preparing cryo-EM specimens at low protein concentration using a graphene oxide support layer. With this procedure, we were able to determine a cryo-EM reconstruction of yeast SAGA at 3.1 Å resolution and examine its conformational landscape with the neural network-based algorithm cryoDRGN. Our analysis revealed that SAGA adopts a range of conformations with its HAT module and central core in different orientations relative to Tra1.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  3. CryoDRGN is a machine learning system for heterogenous cryo-EM reconstruction of proteins and protein complexes from single particle cryo-EM data. Central to this approach is a deep generative model for heterogeneous cryo-EM density maps, which we empirically find effectively models both discrete and continuous forms of structural variability. Once trained, cryoDRGN is capable of generating an arbitrary number of 3D density maps, and thus interpreting the resulting ensemble is a challenge. Here, we showcase interactive and automated processing approaches for analyzing cryoDRGN results. Specifically, we detail a step-by-step protocol for analysis of the assembling 50S ribosome dataset (Davis et al., EMPIAR-10076), including preparation of inputs, network training, and visualization of the resulting ensemble of density maps. Additionally, we describe and implement methods to comprehensively analyze and interpret the distribution of volumes with the assistance of an associated atomic model. This protocol is appropriate for structural biologists familiar with processing single particle cryo-EM datasets and with moderate experience navigating Python and Jupyter notebooks. It requires 3-4 days to complete.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023
  4. Abstract Summary

    Computational methods to predict protein–protein interaction (PPI) typically segregate into sequence-based ‘bottom-up’ methods that infer properties from the characteristics of the individual protein sequences, or global ‘top-down’ methods that infer properties from the pattern of already known PPIs in the species of interest. However, a way to incorporate top-down insights into sequence-based bottom-up PPI prediction methods has been elusive. We thus introduce Topsy-Turvy, a method that newly synthesizes both views in a sequence-based, multi-scale, deep-learning model for PPI prediction. While Topsy-Turvy makes predictions using only sequence data, during the training phase it takes a transfer-learning approach by incorporating patterns from both global and molecular-level views of protein interaction. In a cross-species context, we show it achieves state-of-the-art performance, offering the ability to perform genome-scale, interpretable PPI prediction for non-model organisms with no existing experimental PPI data. In species with available experimental PPI data, we further present a Topsy-Turvy hybrid (TT-Hybrid) model which integrates Topsy-Turvy with a purely network-based model for link prediction that provides information about species-specific network rewiring. TT-Hybrid makes accurate predictions for both well- and sparsely-characterized proteins, outperforming both its constituent components as well as other state-of-the-art PPI prediction methods. Furthermore, running Topsy-Turvy and TT-Hybrid screens ismore »feasible for whole genomes, and thus these methods scale to settings where other methods (e.g. AlphaFold-Multimer) might be infeasible. The generalizability, accuracy and genome-level scalability of Topsy-Turvy and TT-Hybrid unlocks a more comprehensive map of protein interaction and organization in both model and non-model organisms.

    Availability and implementation

    Supplementary information

    Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

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