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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. In the present work, the macroscopic governing equations governing the heat and mass transfer for a general multicomponent system are derived via a systematic nonequilibrium thermodynamics framework. In contrast to previous approaches, the relative (with respect to the mass average velocity) component mass fluxes (relative species momenta) and the heat flux are treated explicitly, in complete analogy with the momentum flux. The framework followed here, in addition to allowing for the description of relaxation phenomena in heat and mass transfer, establishes to the fullest the analogy between all transport processes, momentum, heat, and mass transfer, toward which R. B. Bird contributed so much with his work. The inclusion of heat flux-based momentum as an additional variable allows for the description of relaxation phenomena in heat transfer as well as of mixed (Soret and Dufour) effects, coupling heat and mass transfer. The resulting models are Galilean invariant, thereby resolving a conundrum in the field, and always respect the second law of thermodynamics, for appropriate selection of transport parameters. The general flux-based dynamic equations reduce to the traditional transport equations in the limit when mass species and heat relaxation effects are negligible and are fully consistent with the equations established from themore »application of kinetic theory in the limit of dilute gases. As an added benefit, for the particular example case of hyperbolic diffusion we illustrate the application of the proposed models as a method to allow the use of powerful numerical solvers normally not available for solving mass transfer models more generally.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2023
  3. Due to the potential impact on the diagnosis and treatment of various cardiovascular diseases, work on the rheology of blood has significantly expanded in the last decade, both experimentally and theoretically. Experimentally, blood has been confirmed to demonstrate a variety of non-Newtonian rheological characteristics, including pseudoplasticity, viscoelasticity, and thixotropy. New rheological experiments and the development of more controlled experimental protocols on more extensive, broadly physiologically characterized, human blood samples demonstrate the sensitivity of aspects of hemorheology to several physiological factors. For example, at high shear rates the red blood cells elastically deform, imparting viscoelasticity, while at low shear rates, they form “rouleaux” structures that impart additional, thixotropic behavior. In addition to the advances in experimental methods and validated data sets, significant advances have also been made in both microscopic simulations and macroscopic, continuum, modeling, as well as novel, multiscale approaches. We outline and evaluate the most promising of these recent developments. Although we primarily focus on human blood rheology, we also discuss recent observations on variations observed across some animal species that provide some indication on evolutionary effects.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 8, 2022