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  1. Abstract

    We perform the first 3D ab-initio general-relativistic neutrino-radiation hydrodynamics of a long-lived neutron star merger remnant spanning a fraction of its cooling timescale. We find that neutrino cooling becomes the dominant energy loss mechanism after the gravitational-wave dominated phase (∼20 ms postmerger). Electron flavor antineutrino luminosity dominates over electron flavor neutrino luminosity at early times, resulting in a secular increase of the electron fraction in the outer layers of the remnant. However, the two luminosities become comparable ∼20–40 ms postmerger. A dense gas of electron antineutrinos is formed in the outer core of the remnant at densities ∼1014.5g cm−3, corresponding to temperature hot spots. The neutrinos account for ∼10% of the lepton number in this region. Despite the negative radial temperature gradient, the radial entropy gradient remains positive, and the remnant is stably stratified according to the Ledoux criterion for convection. A massive accretion disk is formed from the material squeezed out of the collisional interface between the stars. The disk carries a large fraction of the angular momentum of the system, allowing the remnant massive neutron star to settle to a quasi-steady equilibrium within the region of possible, stable, rigidly rotating configurations. The remnant is differentially rotating, but it is stable against the magnetorotational instability. Other MHD mechanisms operating on longer timescales are likely responsible for the removal of the differential rotation. Our results indicate the remnant massive neutron star is thus qualitatively different from a protoneutron stars formed in core-collapse supernovae.

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  2. Abstract

    We present a 3D general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulation of a short-lived neutron star remnant formed in the aftermath of a binary neutron star merger. The simulation uses an M1 neutrino transport scheme to track neutrino–matter interactions and is well suited to studying the resulting nucleosynthesis and kilonova emission. A magnetized wind is driven from the remnant and ejects neutron-rich material at a quasi-steady-state rate of 0.8 × 10−1Ms−1. We find that the ejecta in our simulations underproducer-process abundances beyond the secondr-process peak. For sufficiently long-lived remnants, these outflowsalonecan produce blue kilonovae, including the blue kilonova component observed for AT2017gfo.

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  3. Abstract

    We study the impact of finite-temperature effects in numerical-relativity simulations of binary neutron star mergers with microphysical equations of state and neutrino transport in which we vary the effective nucleon masses in a controlled way. We find that, as the specific heat is increased, the merger remnants become colder and more compact due to the reduced thermal pressure support. Using a full Bayesian analysis, we demonstrate that this effect will be measurable in the postmerger gravitational wave signal with next-generation observatories at signal-to-noise ratios of 15.

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  4. ABSTRACT We present a systematic numerical relativity study of the impact of different physics input and grid resolution in binary neutron star mergers. We compare simulations employing a neutrino leakage scheme, leakage plus M0 scheme, the M1 transport scheme, and pure hydrodynamics. Additionally, we examine the effect of a sub-grid scheme for turbulent viscosity. We find that the overall dynamics and thermodynamics of the remnant core are robust, implying that the maximum remnant density could be inferred from gravitational wave observations. Black hole collapse instead depends significantly on viscosity and grid resolution. Differently from recent work, we identify possible signatures of neutrino effects in the gravitational waves only at the highest resolutions considered; new high-resolution simulations will be thus required to build accurate gravitational wave templates to observe these effects. Different neutrino transport schemes impact significantly mass, geometry, and composition of the remnant’s disc and ejecta; M1 simulations show systematically larger proton fractions, reaching maximum values larger than 0.4. r-process nucleosynthesis yields reflect the different ejecta compositions; they are in agreement and reproduce residual solar abundances only if M0 or M1 neutrino transport schemes are adopted. We compute kilonova light curves using spherically-symmetric radiation-hydrodynamics evolutions up to 15 d post-merger, finding that they are mostly sensitive to the ejecta mass and electron fraction; accounting for multiple ejecta components appears necessary for reliable light curve predictions. We conclude that advanced neutrino schemes and resolutions higher than current standards are essential for robust long-term evolutions and detailed astrophysical predictions. 
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  5. Abstract

    We present the second data release of gravitational waveforms from binary neutron star (BNS) merger simulations performed by the Computational Relativity (CoRe) collaboration. The current database consists of 254 different BNS configurations and a total of 590 individual numerical-relativity simulations using various grid resolutions. The released waveform data contain the strain and the Weyl curvature multipoles up to=m=4. They span a significant portion of the mass, mass-ratio, spin and eccentricity parameter space and include targeted configurations to the events GW170817 and GW190425.CoResimulations are performed with 18 different equations of state, seven of which are finite temperature models, and three of which account for non-hadronic degrees of freedom. About half of the released data are computed with high-order hydrodynamics schemes for tens of orbits to merger; the other half is computed with advanced microphysics. We showcase a standard waveform error analysis and discuss the accuracy of the database in terms of faithfulness. We present ready-to-use fitting formulas for equation of state-insensitive relations at merger (e.g. merger frequency), luminosity peak, and post-merger spectrum.

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  6. Abstract

    Neutrinos are copiously emitted by neutron star mergers, due to the high temperatures reached by dense matter during the merger and its aftermath. Neutrinos influence the merger dynamics and shape the properties of the ejecta, including the resultingr-process nucleosynthesis and kilonova emission. In this work, we analyse neutrino emission from a large sample of binary neutron star merger simulations in Numerical Relativity, covering a broad range of initial masses, nuclear equation of state and viscosity treatments. We extract neutrino luminosities and mean energies, and compute quantities of interest such as the peak values, peak broadnesses, time averages and decrease time scales. We provide a systematic description of such quantities, including their dependence on the initial parameters of the system. We find that for equal-mass systems the total neutrino luminosity (several$$10^{53}{\hbox {erg}~{\hbox {s}}^{-1}}$$1053ergs-1) decreases as the reduced tidal deformability increases, as a consequence of the less violent merger dynamics. Similarly, tidal disruption in asymmetric mergers leads to systematically smaller luminosities. Peak luminosities can be twice as large as the average ones. Electron antineutrino luminosities dominate (initially by a factor of 2-3) over electron neutrino ones, while electron neutrinos and heavy flavour neutrinos have similar luminosities. Mean energies are nearly constant in time and independent on the binary parameters. Their values reflect the different decoupling temperature inside the merger remnant. Despite present uncertainties in neutrino modelling, our results provide a broad and physically grounded characterisation of neutrino emission, and they can serve as a reference point to develop more sophisticated neutrino transport schemes.

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