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Creators/Authors contains: "Bertozzi, Andrea L."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 23, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. Purpose To develop a method of biologically guided deep learning for post-radiation 18 FDG-PET image outcome prediction based on pre-radiation images and radiotherapy dose information. Methods Based on the classic reaction–diffusion mechanism, a novel biological model was proposed using a partial differential equation that incorporates spatial radiation dose distribution as a patient-specific treatment information variable. A 7-layer encoder–decoder-based convolutional neural network (CNN) was designed and trained to learn the proposed biological model. As such, the model could generate post-radiation 18 FDG-PET image outcome predictions with breakdown biological components for enhanced explainability. The proposed method was developed using 64 oropharyngeal patients with paired 18 FDG-PET studies before and after 20-Gy delivery (2 Gy/day fraction) by intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). In a two-branch deep learning execution, the proposed CNN learns specific terms in the biological model from paired 18 FDG-PET images and spatial dose distribution in one branch, and the biological model generates post-20-Gy 18 FDG-PET image prediction in the other branch. As in 2D execution, 718/233/230 axial slices from 38/13/13 patients were used for training/validation/independent test. The prediction image results in test cases were compared with the ground-truth results quantitatively. Results The proposed method successfully generated post-20-Gy 18 FDG-PET image outcome predictionmore »with breakdown illustrations of biological model components. Standardized uptake value (SUV) mean values in 18 FDG high-uptake regions of predicted images (2.45 ± 0.25) were similar to ground-truth results (2.51 ± 0.33). In 2D-based Gamma analysis, the median/mean Gamma Index (<1) passing rate of test images was 96.5%/92.8% using the 5%/5 mm criterion; such result was improved to 99.9%/99.6% when 10%/10 mm was adopted. Conclusion The developed biologically guided deep learning method achieved post-20-Gy 18 FDG-PET image outcome predictions in good agreement with ground-truth results. With the breakdown biological modeling components, the outcome image predictions could be used in adaptive radiotherapy decision-making to optimize personalized plans for the best outcome in the future.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 13, 2023
  5. Deterministic compartmental models for infectious diseases give the mean behaviour of stochastic agent-based models. These models work well for counterfactual studies in which a fully mixed large-scale population is relevant. However, with finite size populations, chance variations may lead to significant departures from the mean. In real-life applications, finite size effects arise from the variance of individual realizations of an epidemic course about its fluid limit. In this article, we consider the classical stochastic Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model, and derive a martingale formulation consisting of a deterministic and a stochastic component. The deterministic part coincides with the classical deterministic SIR model and we provide an upper bound for the stochastic part. Through analysis of the stochastic component depending on varying population size, we provide a theoretical explanation of finite size effects. Our theory is supported by quantitative and direct numerical simulations of theoretical infinitesimal variance. Case studies of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) transmission in smaller populations illustrate that the theory provides an envelope of possible outcomes that includes the field data.

  6. During the COVID-19 pandemic, conflicting opinions on physical distancing swept across social media, affecting both human behavior and the spread of COVID-19. Inspired by such phenomena, we construct a two-layer multiplex network for the coupled spread of a disease and conflicting opinions. We model each process as a contagion. On one layer, we consider the concurrent evolution of two opinions — pro-physical-distancing and anti-physical-distancing — that compete with each other and have mutual immunity to each other. The disease evolves on the other layer, and individuals are less likely (respectively, more likely) to become infected when they adopt the pro-physical-distancing (respectively, anti-physical-distancing) opinion. We develop approximations of mean-field type by generalizing monolayer pair approximations to multilayer networks; these approximations agree well with Monte Carlo simulations for a broad range of parameters and several network structures. Through numerical simulations, we illustrate the influence of opinion dynamics on the spread of the disease from complex interactions both between the two conflicting opinions and between the opinions and the disease. We find that lengthening the duration that individuals hold an opinion may help suppress disease transmission, and we demonstrate that increasing the cross-layer correlations or intra-layer correlations of node degrees may lead tomore »fewer individuals becoming infected with the disease.« less