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  1. Abstract. The exchange of trace gases between the biosphere and the atmosphere is an important process that controls both chemical and physical properties of the atmosphere with implications for air quality and climate change. The terrestrial biosphere is a major source of reactive biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) that govern atmospheric concentrations of the hydroxy radical (OH) and ozone (O3) and control the formation andgrowth of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Common simulations of BVOCsurface–atmosphere exchange in chemical transport models use parameterizations derived from the growing season and do not considerpotential changes in emissions during seasonal transitions. Here, we useobservations of BVOCs over a mixed temperate forest in northern Wisconsinduring broadleaf senescence to better understand the effects of the seasonal changes in canopy conditions (e.g., temperature, sunlight, leaf area, and leaf stage) on net BVOC exchange. The BVOCs investigated here include the terpenoids isoprene (C5H8), monoterpenes (MTs; C10H16), a monoterpene oxide (C10H16O), and sesquiterpenes (SQTs; C15H24), as well as a subset of other monoterpene oxides and dimethyl sulfide (DMS). During this period, MTs were primarily composed of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphene, with α-pinene and camphene dominant during the first half of September and β-pinene thereafter. We observed enhanced MT and monoterpene oxide emissions following the onset of leaf senescence and suggest that senescence has the potential to be a significant control on late-season MT emissions in this ecosystem. We show that common parameterizations of BVOC emissions cannot reproduce the fluxes of MT, C10H16O, and SQT during the onset and continuation of senescence but can correctly simulate isoprene flux. We also describe the impact of the MT emission enhancement on the potential to form highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs). The calculated production rates of HOMs and H2SO4, constrained by terpene and DMS concentrations, suggest that biogenic aerosol formation and growth in this region should be dominated by secondary organics rather than sulfate. Further, we show that models using parameterized MT emissions likely underestimate HOM production, and thus aerosol growth and formation, during early autumn in this region. Further measurements of forest–atmosphere BVOC exchange during seasonal transitions as well as measurements of DMS in temperate regions are needed to effectively predict the effects of canopy changes on reactive carbon cycling and aerosol production. 
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  2. Abstract. Oceanic emissions of dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3,DMS) have long been recognized to impact aerosol particle composition andsize, the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and Earth'sradiation balance. The impact of oceanic emissions of methanethiol(CH3SH, MeSH), which is produced by the same oceanic precursor as DMS,on the volatile sulfur budget of the marine atmosphere is largelyunconstrained. Here we present direct flux measurements of MeSH oceanicemissions using the eddy covariance (EC) method with a high-resolutionproton-transfer-reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-ToFMS)detector and compare them to simultaneous flux measurements of DMS emissionsfrom a coastal ocean site. Campaign mean mixing ratios of DMS and MeSH were72 ppt (28–90 ppt interquartile range) and 19.1 ppt (7.6–24.5 pptinterquartile range), respectively. Campaign mean emission fluxes of DMS (FDMS) and MeSH (FMeSH) were 1.13 ppt m s−1 (0.53–1.61 ppt m s−1 interquartile range) and 0.21 ppt m s−1 (0.10–0.31 ppt m s−1 interquartile range), respectively. Linear least squares regression of observed MeSH and DMS flux indicates the emissions are highly correlatedwith each other (R2=0.65) over the course of the campaign,consistent with a shared oceanic source. The campaign mean DMS to MeSH fluxratio (FDMS:FMeSH) was 5.5 ± 3.0, calculated from the ratio of 304 individual coincident measurements of FDMS and FMeSH. Measured FDMS:FMeSH was weakly correlated (R2=0.15) withocean chlorophyll concentrations, with FDMS:FMeSH reaching a maximumof 10.8 ± 4.4 during a phytoplankton bloom period. No other volatilesulfur compounds were observed by PTR-ToFMS to have a resolvable emissionflux above their flux limit of detection or to have a gas-phase mixing ratio consistently above their limit of detection during the study period,suggesting DMS and MeSH are the dominant volatile organic sulfur compoundsemitted from the ocean at this site. The impact of this MeSH emission source on atmospheric budgets of sulfurdioxide (SO2) was evaluated by implementing observed emissions in a coupled ocean–atmosphere chemical box model using a newly compiled MeSHoxidation mechanism. Model results suggest that MeSH emissions lead toafternoon instantaneous SO2 production of 2.5 ppt h−1, which results in a 43 % increase in total SO2 production compared to a casewhere only DMS emissions are considered and accounts for 30% of theinstantaneous SO2 production in the marine boundary layer at the meanmeasured FDMS and FMeSH. This contribution of MeSH to SO2production is driven by a higher effective yield of SO2 from MeSHoxidation and the shorter oxidation lifetime of MeSH compared to DMS. Thislarge additional source of marine SO2 has not been previouslyconsidered in global models of marine sulfur cycling. The field measurementsand modeling results presented here demonstrate that MeSH is an importantcontributor to volatile sulfur budgets in the marine atmosphere and must be measured along with DMS in order to constrain marine sulfur budgets. Thislarge additional source of marine–reduced sulfur from MeSH will contribute to particle formation and growth and CCN abundance in the marine atmosphere, with subsequent impacts on climate. 
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  4. Abstract. The oxidation of dimethyl sulfide (DMS;CH3SCH3), emitted from the surface ocean, contributes to theformation of Aitken mode particles and their growth to cloud condensationnuclei (CCN) sizes in remote marine environments. It is not clear whetherother less commonly measured marine-derived, sulfur-containing gases sharesimilar dynamics to DMS and contribute to secondary marine aerosolformation. Here, we present measurements of gas-phase volatile organosulfurmolecules taken with a Vocus proton-transfer-reaction high-resolutiontime-of-flight mass spectrometer during a mesocosm phytoplankton bloomexperiment using coastal seawater. We show that DMS, methanethiol (MeSH;CH3SH), and benzothiazole (C7H5NS) account for on averageover 90 % of total gas-phase sulfur emissions, with non-DMS sulfur sourcesrepresenting 36.8 ± 7.7 % of sulfur emissions during the first 9 d of the experiment in the pre-bloom phase prior to major biologicalgrowth, before declining to 14.5 ± 6.0 % in the latter half of theexperiment when DMS dominates during the bloom and decay phases. The molarratio of DMS to MeSH during the pre-bloom phase (DMS : MeSH = 4.60 ± 0.93) was consistent with the range of previously calculated ambient DMS-to-MeSH sea-to-air flux ratios. As the experiment progressed, the DMS to MeSHemission ratio increased significantly, reaching 31.8 ± 18.7 duringthe bloom and decay. Measurements of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP),heterotrophic bacteria, and enzyme activity in the seawater suggest theDMS : MeSH ratio is a sensitive indicator of the bacterial sulfur demand andthe composition and magnitude of available sulfur sources in seawater. Theevolving DMS : MeSH ratio and the emission of a new aerosol precursor gas,benzothiazole, have important implications for secondary sulfate formationpathways in coastal marine environments. 
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  5. Abstract. We report on the development, characterization, and fielddeployment of a fast-time-response sensor for measuring ozone (O3) andnitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations utilizing chemical ionizationtime-of-flight mass spectrometry (CI-ToFMS) with oxygen anion(O2-) reagent ion chemistry. Wedemonstrate that the oxygen anion chemical ionization mass spectrometer(Ox-CIMS) is highly sensitive to both O3 (180 counts s−1 pptv−1) and NO2 (97 counts s−1 pptv−1), corresponding todetection limits (3σ, 1 s averages) of 13 and 9.9 pptv,respectively. In both cases, the detection threshold is limited by themagnitude and variability in the background determination. The short-termprecision (1 s averages) is better than 0.3 % at 10 ppbv O3 and 4 %at 10 pptv NO2. We demonstrate that the sensitivity of the O3measurement to fluctuations in ambient water vapor and carbon dioxide isnegligible for typical conditions encountered in the troposphere. Theapplication of the Ox-CIMS to the measurement of O3 vertical fluxesover the coastal ocean, via eddy covariance (EC), was tested during the summer of2018 at Scripps Pier, La Jolla, CA. The observed mean ozone depositionvelocity (vd(O3)) was 0.013 cm s−1 with a campaign ensemblelimit of detection (LOD) of 0.0027 cm s−1 at the 95 % confidencelevel, from each 27 min sampling period LOD. The campaign mean and 1standard deviation range of O3 mixing ratios was 41.2±10.1 ppbv. Several fast ozone titration events from local NO emissions weresampled where unit conversion of O3 to NO2 was observed,highlighting instrument utility as a total odd-oxygen (Ox=O3+NO2) sensor. The demonstrated precision, sensitivity, and timeresolution of this instrument highlight its potential for directmeasurements of O3 ocean–atmosphere and biosphere–atmosphere exchangefrom both stationary and mobile sampling platforms. 
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