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    Deep radio surveys of extragalactic legacy fields trace a large range of spatial and brightness temperature sensitivity scales, and therefore have differing biases to radio-emitting physical components within galaxies. This is particularly true of radio surveys performed at $\lesssim 1 \ \mathrm{arcsec}$ angular resolutions, and so robust comparisons are necessary to better understand the biases present in each survey. We present a multiresolution and multiwavelength analysis of the sources detected in a new Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) survey of the Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North field. For the 24 VLBA-selected sources described in Paper I, we augment the VLBA data with EVN data, and ∼0.1–1 arcsec angular resolution data provided by Very Large Array (VLA) and enhanced-Multi Element Remotely Linked Interferometry Network. This sample includes new active galactic nuclei (AGN) detected in this field, thanks to a new source extraction technique that adopts priors from ancillary multiwavelength data. The high brightness temperatures of these sources (TB ≳ 106 K) confirm AGN cores, that would often be missed or ambiguous in lower-resolution radio data of the same sources. Furthermore, only 15 sources are identified as ‘radiative’ AGN based on available X-ray and infrared constraints. By combining VLA and VLBA measurements, we find evidence that the majority of the extended radio emission is also AGN dominated, with only three sources with evidence for extended potentially star formation-dominated radio emission. We demonstrate the importance of wide-field multiresolution (arcsecond–milliarcsecond) coverage of the faint radio source population, for a complete picture of the multiscale processes within these galaxies.

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  2. Abstract We present the full panchromatic afterglow light-curve data of GW170817, including new radio data as well as archival optical and X-ray data, between 0.5 and 940 days post-merger. By compiling all archival data and reprocessing a subset of it, we have evaluated the impact of differences in data processing or flux determination methods used by different groups and attempted to mitigate these differences to provide a more uniform data set. Simple power-law fits to the uniform afterglow light curve indicate a t 0.86±0.04 rise, a t −1.92±0.12 decline, and a peak occurring at 155 ± 4 days. The afterglow is optically thin throughout its evolution, consistent with a single spectral index (−0.584 ± 0.002) across all epochs. This gives a precise and updated estimate of the electron power-law index, p = 2.168 ± 0.004. By studying the diffuse X-ray emission from the host galaxy, we place a conservative upper limit on the hot ionized interstellar medium density, <0.01 cm −3 , consistent with previous afterglow studies. Using the late-time afterglow data we rule out any long-lived neutron star remnant having a magnetic field strength between 10 10.4 and 10 16 G. Our fits to the afterglow data using an analytical model that includes Very Long Baseline Interferometry proper motion from Mooley et al., and a structured jet model that ignores the proper motion, indicates that the proper-motion measurement needs to be considered when seeking an accurate estimate of the viewing angle. 
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