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  1. Regularized sparse learning with the ℓ0-norm is important in many areas, including statistical learning and signal processing. Iterative hard thresholding (IHT) methods are the state-of-the-art for nonconvex-constrained sparse learning due to their capability of recovering true support and scalability with large datasets. The current theoretical analysis of IHT assumes the use of centralized IID data. In realistic large-scale scenarios, however, data are distributed, seldom IID, and private to edge computing devices at the local level. Consequently, it is required to study the property of IHT in a federated environment, where local devices update the sparse model individually and communicate with a central server for aggregation infrequently without sharing local data. In this paper, we propose the first group of federated IHT methods: Federated Hard Thresholding (Fed-HT) and Federated Iterative Hard Thresholding (FedIter-HT) with theoretical guarantees. We prove that both algorithms have a linear convergence rate and guarantee for recovering the optimal sparse estimator, which is comparable to classic IHT methods, but with decentralized, non-IID, and unbalanced data. Empirical results demonstrate that the Fed-HT and FedIter-HT outperform their competitor—a distributed IHT, in terms of reducing objective values with fewer communication rounds and bandwidth requirements. 
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  2. The large model size, high computational operations, and vulnerability against membership inference attack (MIA) have impeded deep learning or deep neural networks (DNNs) popularity, especially on mobile devices. To address the challenge, we envision that the weight pruning technique will help DNNs against MIA while reducing model storage and computational operation. In this work, we propose a pruning algorithm, and we show that the proposed algorithm can find a subnetwork that can prevent privacy leakage from MIA and achieves competitive accuracy with the original DNNs. We also verify our theoretical insights with experiments. Our experimental results illustrate that the attack accuracy using model compression is up to 13.6% and 10% lower than that of the baseline and Min-Max game, accordingly.

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  6. Abstract—Materials Genomics initiative has the goal of rapidly synthesizing materials with a given set of desired properties using data science techniques. An important step in this direction is the ability to predict the outcomes of complex chemical reactions. Some graph-based feature learning algorithms have been proposed recently. However, the comprehensive relationship between atoms or structures is not learned properly and not explainable, and multiple graphs cannot be handled. In this paper, chemical reaction processes are formulated as translation processes. Both atoms and edges are mapped to vectors represent- ing the structural information. We employ the graph convolution layers to learn meaningful information of atom graphs, and further employ its variations, message passing networks (MPNN) and edge attention graph convolution network (EAGCN) to learn edge representations. Particularly, multi-view EAGCN groups and maps edges to a set of representations for the properties of the chemical bond between atoms from multiple views. Each bond is viewed from its atom type, bond type, distance and neighbor environment. The final node and edge representations are mapped to a sequence defined by the SMILES of the molecule and then fed to a decoder model with attention. To make full usage of multi-view information, we propose multi-view attention model to handle self correlation inside each atom or edge, and mutual correlation between edges and atoms, both of which are important in chemical reaction processes. We have evaluated our method on the standard benchmark datasets (that have been used by all the prior works), and the results show that edge embedding with multi-view attention achieves superior accuracy compared to existing techniques. 
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  7. Organic molecules and polymers have a broad range of applications in biomedical, chemical, and materials science fields. Traditional design approaches for organic molecules and polymers are mainly experimentally-driven, guided by experience, intuition, and conceptual insights. Though they have been successfully applied to discover many important materials, these methods are facing significant challenges due to the tremendous demand of new materials and vast design space of organic molecules and polymers. Accelerated and inverse materials design is an ideal solution to these challenges. With advancements in high-throughput computation, artificial intelligence (especially machining learning, ML), and the growth of materials databases, ML-assisted materials design is emerging as a promising tool to flourish breakthroughs in many areas of materials science and engineering. To date, using ML-assisted approaches, the quantitative structure property/activity relation for material property prediction can be established more accurately and efficiently. In addition, materials design can be revolutionized and accelerated much faster than ever, through ML-enabled molecular generation and inverse molecular design. In this perspective, we review the recent progresses in ML-guided design of organic molecules and polymers, highlight several successful examples, and examine future opportunities in biomedical, chemical, and materials science fields. We further discuss the relevant challenges to solve in order to fully realize the potential of ML-assisted materials design for organic molecules and polymers. In particular, this study summarizes publicly available materials databases, feature representations for organic molecules, open-source tools for feature generation, methods for molecular generation, and ML models for prediction of material properties, which serve as a tutorial for researchers who have little experience with ML before and want to apply ML for various applications. Last but not least, it draws insights into the current limitations of ML-guided design of organic molecules and polymers. We anticipate that ML-assisted materials design for organic molecules and polymers will be the driving force in the near future, to meet the tremendous demand of new materials with tailored properties in different fields. 
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  8. Graph sparsification has been used to improve the computational cost of learning over graphs, e.g., Laplacian-regularized estimation and graph semi-supervised learning (SSL). However, when graphs vary over time, repeated sparsification requires polynomial order computational cost per update. We propose a new type of graph sparsification namely fault-tolerant (FT) sparsification to significantly reduce the cost to only a constant. Then the computational cost of subsequent graph learning tasks can be significantly improved with limited loss in their accuracy. In particular, we give theoretical analyze to upper bound the loss in the accuracy of the subsequent Laplacian-regularized estimation and graph SSL, due to the FT sparsification. In addition, FT spectral sparsification can be generalized to FT cut sparsification, for cut-based graph learning. Extensive experiments have confirmed the computational efficiencies and accuracies of the proposed methods for learning on dynamic graphs. 
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