Neutral shallow donors in zinc oxide (ZnO) are spin qubits with optical access via the donor-bound exciton. This spin–photon interface enables applications in quantum networking, memories, and transduction. Essential optical parameters which impact the spin–photon interface include radiative lifetime, optical inhomogeneous and homogeneous linewidth, and optical depth. We study the donor-bound exciton optical linewidth properties of Al, Ga, and In donors in single-crystal ZnO. The ensemble photoluminescence linewidth ranges from 4 to 11 GHz, less than two orders of magnitude larger than the expected lifetime-limited linewidth. The ensemble linewidth remains narrow in absorption through samples with an estimated optical depth up to several hundred. The primary thermal relaxation mechanism is identified and found to have a negligible contribution to the total linewidth at 2 K. We find that inhomogeneous broadening due to the disordered isotopic environment in natural ZnO is significant, contributing 2 GHz. Two-laser spectral hole burning measurements indicate that the dominant mechanism, however, is homogeneous. Despite this broadening, the high homogeneity, large optical depth, and potential for isotope purification indicate that the optical properties of the ZnO donor-bound exciton are promising for a wide range of quantum technologies, and motivate a need to improve the isotope and chemical purity of ZnO for quantum technologies.
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Solid-state quantum emitters have emerged as a leading quantum memory for quantum networking applications. However, standard optical characterization techniques are neither efficient nor repeatable at scale. Here we introduce and demonstrate spectroscopic techniques that enable large-scale, automated characterization of colour centres. We first demonstrate the ability to track colour centres by registering them to a fabricated machine-readable global coordinate system, enabling a systematic comparison of the same colour centre sites over many experiments. We then implement resonant photoluminescence excitation in a widefield cryogenic microscope to parallelize resonant spectroscopy, achieving two orders of magnitude speed-up over confocal microscopy. Finally, we demonstrate automated chip-scale characterization of colour centres and devices at room temperature, imaging thousands of microscope fields of view. These tools will enable the accelerated identification of useful quantum emitters at chip scale, enabling advances in scaling up colour centre platforms for quantum information applications, materials science and device design and characterization.more » « lessFree, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
Abstract Diamond color centers have been widely studied in the field of quantum optics. The negatively charged silicon vacancy (SiV − ) center exhibits a narrow emission linewidth at the wavelength of 738 nm, a high Debye–Waller factor, and unique spin properties, making it a promising emitter for quantum information technologies, biological imaging, and sensing. In particular, nanodiamond (ND)-based SiV − centers can be heterogeneously integrated with plasmonic and photonic nanostructures and serve as in vivo biomarkers and intracellular thermometers. Out of all methods to produce NDs with SiV − centers, ion implantation offers the unique potential to create controllable numbers of color centers in preselected individual NDs. However, the formation of single color centers in NDs with this technique has not been realized. We report the creation of single SiV − centers featuring stable high-purity single-photon emission through Si implantation into NDs with an average size of ∼20 nm. We observe room temperature emission, with zero-phonon line wavelengths in the range of 730–800 nm and linewidths below 10 nm. Our results offer new opportunities for the controlled production of group-IV diamond color centers with applications in quantum photonics, sensing, and biomedicine.more » « less
Engineering arrays of active optical centers to control the interaction Hamiltonian between light and matter has been the subject of intense research recently. Collective interaction of atomic arrays with optical photons can give rise to directionally enhanced absorption or emission, which enables engineering of broadband and strong atom-photon interfaces. Here, we report on the observation of long-range cooperative resonances in an array of rare-earth ions controllably implanted into a solid-state lithium niobate micro-ring resonator. We show that cooperative effects can be observed in an ordered ion array extended far beyond the light’s wavelength. We observe enhanced emission from both cavity-induced Purcell enhancement and array-induced collective resonances at cryogenic temperatures. Engineering collective resonances as a paradigm for enhanced light-matter interactions can enable suppression of free-space spontaneous emission. The multi-functionality of lithium niobate hosting rare-earth ions can open possibilities of quantum photonic device engineering for scalable and multiplexed quantum networks.