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In2O3, an n‐type semiconducting transparent transition metal oxide, possesses a surface electron accumulation layer (SEAL) resulting from downward surface band bending due to the presence of ubiquitous oxygen vacancies. Upon annealing In2O3in ultrahigh vacuum or in the presence of oxygen, the SEAL can be enhanced or depleted, as governed by the resulting density of oxygen vacancies at the surface. In this work, an alternative route to tune the SEAL by adsorption of strong molecular electron donors (specifically here ruthenium pentamethylcyclopentadienyl mesitylene dimer, [RuCp*mes]2) and acceptors (here 2,2′‐(1,3,4,5,7,8‐hexafluoro‐2,6‐naphthalene‐diylidene)bis‐propanedinitrile, F6TCNNQ) is demonstrated. Starting from an electron‐depleted In2O3surface after annealing in oxygen, the deposition of [RuCp*mes]2restores the accumulation layer as a result of electron transfer from the donor molecules to In2O3, as evidenced by the observation of (partially) filled conduction sub‐bands near the Fermi level via angle‐resolved photoemission spectroscopy, indicating the formation of a 2D electron gas due to the SEAL. In contrast, when F6TCNNQ is deposited on a surface annealed without oxygen, the electron accumulation layer vanishes and an upward band bending is generated at the In2O3surface due to electron depletion by the acceptor molecules. Hence, further opportunities to expand the application of In2O3in electronic devices are revealed.
The search for new wide-band-gap materials is intensifying to satisfy the need for more advanced and energy-efficient power electronic devices. Ga2O3 has emerged as an alternative to SiC and GaN, sparking a renewed interest in its fundamental properties beyond the main β-phase. Here, three polymorphs of Ga2O3, α, β, and ε, are investigated using X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy, and ab initio theoretical approaches to gain insights into their structure–electronic structure relationships. Valence and conduction electronic structure as well as semicore and core states are probed, providing a complete picture of the influence of local coordination environments on the electronic structure. State-of-the-art electronic structure theory, including all-electron density functional theory and many-body perturbation theory, provides detailed understanding of the spectroscopic results. The calculated spectra provide very accurate descriptions of all experimental spectra and additionally illuminate the origin of observed spectral features. This work provides a strong basis for the exploration of the Ga2O3 polymorphs as materials at the heart of future electronic device generations.more » « less