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  1. Abstract

    We present the discovery of the Type II supernova SN 2023ixf in M101 and follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations, respectively, in the first month and week of its evolution. Our discovery was made within a day of estimated first light, and the following light curve is characterized by a rapid rise (≈5 days) to a luminous peak (MV≈ − 18.2 mag) and plateau (MV≈ − 17.6 mag) extending to 30 days with a fast decline rate of ≈0.03 mag day−1. During the rising phase,UVcolor shows blueward evolution, followed by redward evolution in the plateau phase. Prominent flash features of hydrogen, helium, carbon, and nitrogen dominate the spectra up to ≈5 days after first light, with a transition to a higher ionization state in the first ≈2 days. Both theUVcolor and flash ionization states suggest a rise in the temperature, indicative of a delayed shock breakout inside dense circumstellar material (CSM). From the timescales of CSM interaction, we estimate its compact radial extent of ∼(3–7) × 1014cm. We then construct numerical light-curve models based on both continuous and eruptive mass-loss scenarios shortly before explosion. For the continuous mass-loss scenario, we infer a range of mass-loss history with 0.1–1.0Myr−1in the final 2−1 yr before explosion, with a potentially decreasing mass loss of 0.01–0.1Myr−1in ∼0.7–0.4 yr toward the explosion. For the eruptive mass-loss scenario, we favor eruptions releasing 0.3–1Mof the envelope at about a year before explosion, which result in CSM with mass and extent similar to the continuous scenario. We discuss the implications of the available multiwavelength constraints obtained thus far on the progenitor candidate and SN 2023ixf to our variable CSM models.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  2. Abstract

    While secondary mass inferences based on single-lined spectroscopic binary (SB1) solutions are subject tosinidegeneracies, this degeneracy can be lifted through the observations of eclipses. We combine the subset of Gaia Data Release 3 SB1 solutions consistent with brown dwarf-mass secondaries with the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) Object of Interest (TOI) list to identify three candidate transiting brown dwarf systems. Ground-based precision radial velocity follow-up observations confirm that TOI-2533.01 is a transiting brown dwarf withM=723+3MJup=0.0690.003+0.003Morbiting TYC 2010-124-1 and that TOI-5427.01 is a transiting very low-mass star withM=932+2MJup=0.0880.002+0.002Morbiting UCAC4 515-012898. We validate TOI-1712.01 as a very low-mass star withM=827+7MJup=0.0790.007+0.007Mtransiting the primary in the hierarchical triple system BD+45 1593. Even after accounting for third light, TOI-1712.01 has a radius nearly a factor of 2 larger than predicted for isolated stars with similar properties. We propose that the intense instellation experienced by TOI-1712.01 diminishes the temperature gradient near its surface, suppresses convection, and leads to its inflated radius. Our analyses verify Gaia DR3 SB1 solutions in the low Doppler semiamplitude limit, thereby providing the foundation for future joint analyses of Gaia radial velocities and Kepler, K2, TESS, and PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations light curves for the characterization of transiting massive brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars.

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  3. Abstract

    We explore the fascinating eclipses and dynamics of the compact hierarchical triple-star system KOI-126 (KIC 5897826). This system is composed of a pair of M-dwarf stars (KOI-126 B and C) in a 1.74 day orbit that revolve around an F star (KOI-126 A) every 34 days. Complex eclipse shapes are created as the M stars transit the F star, due to two effects: (1) the duration of the eclipse is a significant fraction of the M-star orbital period, so the prograde or retrograde motion of the M stars in their orbit lead to unusually short or long duration eclipses; (2) due to 3-body dynamics, the M-star orbit precesses with an astonishingly quick timescale of 1.74 yr for the periastron (apsidal) precession, and 2.73 yr for the inclination and nodal angle precession. Using the full Kepler data set, supplemented with ground-based photometry, plus 29 radial velocity measurements that span 6 yr, our photodynamical modeling yields masses ofMA= 1.2713 ± 0.0047M(0.37%),MB= 0.23529 ± 0.00062M(0.26%), andMC= 0.20739 ± 0.00055M(0.27%) and radii ofRA= 1.9984 ± 0.0027R(0.14%),RB= 0.25504 ± 0.00076R(0.3%), andRC= 0.23196 ± 0.00069R(0.3%). We also estimate the apsidal motion constant of the M dwarfs, a parameter that characterizes the internal mass distribution. Although it is not particularly precise, we measure a mean apsidal motion constant,k2¯, of0.0460.028+0.046, which is approximately 2σlower than the theoretical model prediction of 0.150. We explore possible causes for this discrepancy.

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  4. We report the confirmation and characterisation of TOI-1820 b, TOI-2025 b, and TOI-2158 b, three Jupiter-sized planets on short-period orbits around G-type stars detected by TESS. Through our ground-based efforts using the FIES and Tull spectrographs, we have confirmed these planets and characterised their orbits, and find periods of around 4.9 d, 8.9 d, and 8.6 d for TOI-1820 b, TOI-2025 b, and TOI-2158 b, respectively. The sizes of the planets range from 0.96 to 1.14 Jupiter radii, and their masses are in the range from 0.8 to 4.4 Jupiter masses. For two of the systems, namely TOI-2025 and TOI-2158, we see a long-term trend in the radial velocities, indicating the presence of an outer companion in each of the two systems. For TOI-2025 we furthermore find the star to be well aligned with the orbit, with a projected obliquity of 9 −31 +33 °. As these planets are all found in relatively bright systems ( V ~ 10.9–11.6 mag), they are well suited for further studies, which could help shed light on the formation and migration of hot and warm Jupiters. 
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  5. Abstract

    We present high-precision radial velocities (RVs) from the HARPS-N spectrograph for HD 79210 and HD 79211, two M0V members of a gravitationally bound binary system. We detect a planet candidate with a period of24.4210.017+0.016days around HD 79211 in these HARPS-N RVs, validating the planet candidate originally identified in CARMENES RV data alone. Using HARPS-N, CARMENES, and RVs spanning a total of 25 yr, we further refine the planet candidate parameters toP= 24.422 ± 0.014 days,K= 3.19 ± 0.27 m s−1,Msini= 10.6 ± 1.2M, anda= 0.142 ± 0.005 au. We do not find any additional planet candidate signals in the data of HD 79211, nor do we find any planet candidate signals in HD 79210. This system adds to the number of exoplanets detected in binaries with M-dwarf members and serves as a case study for planet formation in stellar binaries.

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  7. Abstract The Kepler and TESS missions have demonstrated that planets are ubiquitous. However, the success of these missions heavily depends on ground-based radial velocity (RV) surveys, which combined with transit photometry can yield bulk densities and orbital properties. While most Kepler host stars are too faint for detailed follow-up observations, TESS is detecting planets orbiting nearby bright stars that are more amenable to RV characterization. Here, we introduce the TESS-Keck Survey (TKS), an RV program using ∼100 nights on Keck/HIRES to study exoplanets identified by TESS. The primary survey aims are investigating the link between stellar properties and the compositions of small planets; studying how the diversity of system architectures depends on dynamical configurations or planet multiplicity; identifying prime candidates for atmospheric studies with JWST; and understanding the role of stellar evolution in shaping planetary systems. We present a fully automated target selection algorithm, which yielded 103 planets in 86 systems for the final TKS sample. Most TKS hosts are inactive, solar-like, main-sequence stars (4500 K ≤ T eff <6000 K) at a wide range of metallicities. The selected TKS sample contains 71 small planets ( R p ≤ 4 R ⊕ ), 11 systems with multiple transiting candidates, six sub-day-period planets and three planets that are in or near the habitable zone ( S inc ≤ 10 S ⊕ ) of their host star. The target selection described here will facilitate the comparison of measured planet masses, densities, and eccentricities to predictions from planet population models. Our target selection software is publicly available and can be adapted for any survey that requires a balance of multiple science interests within a given telescope allocation. 
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  8. ABSTRACT We present the discovery and characterization of six short-period, transiting giant planets from NASA’s Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) -- TOI-1811 (TIC 376524552), TOI-2025 (TIC 394050135), TOI-2145 (TIC 88992642), TOI-2152 (TIC 395393265), TOI-2154 (TIC 428787891), and TOI-2497 (TIC 97568467). All six planets orbit bright host stars (8.9 <G < 11.8, 7.7 <K < 10.1). Using a combination of time-series photometric and spectroscopic follow-up observations from the TESS Follow-up Observing Program Working Group, we have determined that the planets are Jovian-sized (RP  = 0.99--1.45 RJ), have masses ranging from 0.92 to 5.26 MJ, and orbit F, G, and K stars (4766 ≤ Teff ≤ 7360 K). We detect a significant orbital eccentricity for the three longest-period systems in our sample: TOI-2025 b (P  = 8.872 d, 0.394$^{+0.035}_{-0.038}$), TOI-2145 b (P  = 10.261 d, e  = $0.208^{+0.034}_{-0.047}$), and TOI-2497 b (P  = 10.656 d, e  = $0.195^{+0.043}_{-0.040}$). TOI-2145 b and TOI-2497 b both orbit subgiant host stars (3.8 < log  g <4.0), but these planets show no sign of inflation despite very high levels of irradiation. The lack of inflation may be explained by the high mass of the planets; $5.26^{+0.38}_{-0.37}$ MJ (TOI-2145 b) and 4.82 ± 0.41 MJ (TOI-2497 b). These six new discoveries contribute to the larger community effort to use TESS to create a magnitude-complete, self-consistent sample of giant planets with well-determined parameters for future detailed studies. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 14, 2024
  9. Black hole binary systems with companion stars are typically found via their x-ray emission, generated by interaction and accretion. Noninteracting binaries are expected to be plentiful in the Galaxy but must be observed using other methods. We combine radial velocity and photometric variability data to show that the bright, rapidly rotating giant star 2MASS J05215658+4359220 is in a binary system with a massive unseen companion. The system has an orbital period of ~83 days and near-zero eccentricity. The photometric variability period of the giant is consistent with the orbital period, indicating star spots and tidal synchronization. Constraints on the giant’s mass and radius imply that the unseen companion is3.30.7+2.8solar masses, indicating that it is a noninteracting low-mass black hole or an unexpectedly massive neutron star.

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