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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  2. SUMMARY A detailed rock magnetic study was conducted on ash samples collected from different products erupted during explosive activity of Mount Etna, Italy, in order to test the use of magnetic properties as discriminating factors among them, and their explosive character in particular. Samples include tephra emplaced during the last 18 ka: the benmoreitic Plinian eruptions of the Pleistocene Ellittico activity from marine core ET97-70 (Ionian Sea) and the basaltic Holocene FG eruption (122 BC), the Strombolian/Phreatomagmatic/sub-Plinian eruptions (namely, the Holocene TV, FS, FL, ETP products and the 1990, 1998 eruptions) collected from the slope of the volcano, and the Recent explosive activity (lava fountains referred to as ‘Ash Rich Jets and Plumes’, or ARJP) that occurred in the 2001–2002 period, related to flank eruptions. Mössbauer spectrometry informs that a single magnetic mineral dominates the three groups, which are characterized by variable magnetic grain sizes and composition. Detailed rock-magnetic investigations, ranging from low temperature to high temperature remanence and susceptibility experiments, indicate that the more explosive products of the Plinian eruptions and ARJP activity tephra, are characterized by oxidized Ti-rich titanomagnetites, with dominant Curie Temperatures between 230 and 330 °C. The FG and ARJP tephra are also characterized by contrasting, yet overall higher, coercivity distributions and higher magnetizations and susceptibilities, including below room temperature. In contrast, most of the Strombolian/sub-Plinian eruptions have a magnetic signature dominated by less coercive magnetite and/or Ti-poor titanomagnetite. Magnetic differences observed between the Late Pleistocene and Holocene FG Plinian eruptions can be attributed to the different composition of the former eruptions, which were fed by more evolved magmas, whereas geochemical variations characterizing the products erupted in the last few decades can be responsible for the differences between the Holocene and recent Strombolian/sub-Plinian products. Importantly, detailed magnetic investigation of sideromelane and tachylite clasts, the two end members of the juvenile fraction extracted from the ash of the most explosive products, determines that the tachylite fraction is responsible for the magnetic signature of the Plinian FG and ARJP tephra, and is attributed to the intense fragmentation that characterizes these activities, likely resulting from undercooling processes. Moreover, the abundant superparamagnetic grains associated with these eruptive styles are believed to represent the nanolite fraction responsible for the increasing viscosity of these magmas, and to be responsible for their explosive character. The distinctive magnetic properties that characterize the tachylite-bearing tephra, representative of the fragmentation process that distinguishes the most explosive activities, provides a useful magnetic tool that can complement traditional volcanological investigations. 
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  3. Abstract

    Sedimentary rocks of the Itararé Group, deposited during the Late Paleozoic Ice Age in the Paraná Basin of South America, were collected throughout the state of São Paulo, Brazil, for an anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and rock‐magnetic study. A recent paleomagnetic study conducted on the same samples had determined that these rocks were largely remagnetized during the Cretaceous; however, rock‐magnetic experiments demonstrate that the AMS is dominantly carried by paramagnetic minerals and therefore is unaffected by the secondary magnetic overprints. AMS data are analyzed in terms of their shape and orientation, and according to the relationship between theq‐value (magnetic lineation/foliation) and the imbrication angle (β) of the minimum susceptibility axes with respect to bedding (qβdiagram). Using multiple lines of evidence, we demonstrate that AMS records primary sedimentary fabrics that reflect the depositional environments and paleocurrent conditions in which these rocks were deposited. The magnetic fabrics consistently record a SE‐NW paleocurrent orientation, with dominant direction of transport to the NW throughout the entire state of São Paulo, in agreement with ice flow and sediment transport directions reported from limited numbers of sites possessing sedimentary structures and ice‐kinematic indicators.

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  4. Abstract Basal ice of glaciers and ice sheets frequently contains a well-developed stratification of distinct, semi-continuous, alternating layers of debris-poor and debris-rich ice. Here, the nature and distribution of shear within stratified basal ice are assessed through the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of samples collected from Matanuska Glacier, Alaska. Generally, the AMS reveals consistent moderate-to-strong fabrics reflecting simple shear in the direction of ice flow; however, AMS is also dependent upon debris content and morphology. While sample anisotropy is statistically similar throughout the sampled section, debris-rich basal ice composed of semi-continuous mm-scale layers (the stratified facies ) possesses well-defined triaxial to oblate fabrics reflecting shear in the direction of ice flow, whereas debris-poor ice containing mm-scale star-shaped silt aggregates (the suspended facies ) possesses nearly isotropic fabrics. Thus, deformation within the stratified basal ice appears concentrated in debris-rich layers, likely the result of decreased crystal size and greater availability of unfrozen water associated with high debris content. These results suggest that variations in debris-content over small spatial scales influence ice rheology and deformation in the basal zone. 
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