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  1. Abstract

    The Large Hadron Collider at CERN will undergo an upgrade in order to increase its luminosity to 7.5 × 1034cm-2s-1. The increased luminosity during this High-Luminosity running phase, starting around 2029, means a higher rate of proton-proton interactions, hence a larger ionizing dose and particle fluence for the detectors. The current tracking system of the CMS experiment will be fully replaced in order to cope with the new operating conditions. Prototype planar pixel sensors for the CMS Inner Tracker with square 50 μm × 50 μm and rectangular 100 μm × 25 μm pixels read out by the RD53A chip were characterized in the lab and at the DESY-II testbeam facility in order to identify designs that meet the requirements of CMS during the High-Luminosity running phase. A spatial resolution of approximately 3.4 μm (2 μm) is obtained using the modules with 50 μm × 50 μm (100 μm × 25 μm) pixels at the optimal angle of incidence before irradiation. After irradiation to a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of Φeq = 5.3 × 1015 cm-2, a resolution of 9.4 μm is achieved at a bias voltage of 800 V using a module with 50 μm × 50 μm pixel size. All modules retain a hit efficiency in excess of 99% after irradiation to fluences up to 2.1 × 1016 cm-2. Further studies of the electrical properties of the modules, especially crosstalk, are also presented in this paper.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
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  4. Abstract

    A description is presented of the algorithms used to reconstruct energy deposited in the CMS hadron calorimeter during Run 2 (2015–2018) of the LHC. During Run 2, the characteristic bunch-crossing spacing for proton-proton collisions was 25 ns, which resulted in overlapping signals from adjacent crossings. The energy corresponding to a particular bunch crossing of interest is estimated using the known pulse shapes of energy depositions in the calorimeter, which are measured as functions of both energy and time. A variety of algorithms were developed to mitigate the effects of adjacent bunch crossings on local energy reconstruction in the hadron calorimeter in Run 2, and their performance is compared.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
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  8. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    A search for new physics in final states consisting of at least one photon, multiple jets, and large missing transverse momentum is presented, using proton-proton collision events at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 137 fb1, recorded by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC from 2016 to 2018. The events are divided into mutually exclusive bins characterized by the missing transverse momentum, the number of jets, the number of b-tagged jets, and jets consistent with the presence of hadronically decaying W, Z, or Higgs bosons. The observed data are found to be consistent with the prediction from standard model processes. The results are interpreted in the context of simplified models of pair production of supersymmetric particles via strong and electroweak interactions. Depending on the details of the signal models, gluinos and squarks of masses up to 2.35 and 1.43 TeV, respectively, and electroweakinos of masses up to 1.23 TeV are excluded at 95% confidence level.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  9. Abstract

    The mass of the top quark is measured in 36.3$$\,\text {fb}^{-1}$$fb-1of LHC proton–proton collision data collected with the CMS detector at$$\sqrt{s}=13\,\text {Te}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V} $$s=13TeV. The measurement uses a sample of top quark pair candidate events containing one isolated electron or muon and at least four jets in the final state. For each event, the mass is reconstructed from a kinematic fit of the decay products to a top quark pair hypothesis. A profile likelihood method is applied using up to four observables per event to extract the top quark mass. The top quark mass is measured to be$$171.77\pm 0.37\,\text {Ge}\hspace{-.08em}\text {V} $$171.77±0.37GeV. This approach significantly improves the precision over previous measurements.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  10. A<sc>bstract</sc>

    A search for high-mass dimuon resonance production in association with one or more b quark jets is presented. The study uses proton-proton collision data collected with the CMS detector at the LHC corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 138 fb1at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. Model-independent limits are derived on the number of signal events with exactly one or more than one b quark jet. Results are also interpreted in a lepton-flavor-universal model with Z′ boson couplings to a bb quark pair (gb), an sb quark pair (gbδbs), and any same-flavor charged lepton (g) or neutrino pair (gν), with|gν|=|g|. For a Z′ boson with a mass$$ {m}_{{\textrm{Z}}^{\prime }} $$mZ= 350 GeV (2 TeV) andbs|< 0.25, the majority of the parameter space with 0.0057 <|g|< 0.35 (0.25 <|g|< 0.43) and 0.0079 < |gb| < 0.46 (0.34 < |gb| < 0.57) is excluded at 95% confidence level. Finally, constraints are set on a Z′ model with parameters consistent with low-energy b → sℓℓmeasurements. In this scenario, most of the allowed parameter space is excluded for a Z′ boson with 350 <$$ {m}_{{\textrm{Z}}^{\prime }} $$mZ< 500 GeV, while the constraints are less stringent for higher$$ {m}_{{\textrm{Z}}^{\prime }} $$mZhypotheses. This is the first dedicated search at the LHC for a high-mass dimuon resonance produced in association with multiple b quark jets, and the constraints obtained on models with this signature are the most stringent to date.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024