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  1. The increasing demand of big data analytics for more main memory capacity in datacenters and exascale computing environments is driving the integration of heterogeneous memory technologies. The new technologies exhibit vastly greater differences in access latencies, bandwidth and capacity compared to the traditional NUMA systems. Leveraging this heterogeneity while also delivering application performance enhancements requires intelligent data placement. We present Kleio, a page scheduler with machine intelligence for applications that execute across hybrid memory components. Kleio is a hybrid page scheduler that combines existing, lightweight, history-based data tiering methods for hybrid memory, with novel intelligent placement decisions based on deep neural networks. We contribute new understanding toward the scope of benefits that can be achieved by using intelligent page scheduling in comparison to existing history-based approaches, and towards the choice of the deep learning algorithms and their parameters that are effective for this problem space. Kleio incorporates a new method for prioritizing pages that leads to highest performance boost, while limiting the resulting system resource overheads. Our performance evaluation indicates that Kleio reduces on average 80% of the performance gap between the existing solutions and an oracle with knowledge of future access pattern. Kleio provides hybrid memory systems with fastmore »and effective neural network training and prediction accuracy levels, which bring significant application performance improvements with limited resource overheads, so as to lay the grounds for its practical integration in future systems.« less