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  1. Abstract

    We present an extensive Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame UV imaging study of the locations of Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) within their host galaxies. The sample includes 65 SLSNe with detected host galaxies in the redshift rangez≈ 0.05–2. Using precise astrometric matching with SN images, we determine the distributions of the physical and host-normalized offsets relative to the host centers, as well as the fractional flux distribution relative to the underlying UV light distributions. We find that the host-normalized offsets of SLSNe roughly track an exponential disk profile, but exhibit an overabundance of sources with large offsets of 1.5–4 times their hosts' half-light radii. The SLSNe normalized offsets are systematically larger than those of long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs), and even Type Ib/c and Type II SNe. Furthermore, we find from a Monte Carlo procedure that about378+6%of SLSNe occur in the dimmest regions of their host galaxies, with a median fractional flux value of 0.16, in stark contrast to LGRBs and Type Ib/c and Type II SNe. We do not detect any significant trends in the locations of SLSNe as a function of redshift, or as a function of explosion and magnetar engine parameters inferred from modeling of their optical light curves. The significant difference in SLSN locations compared to LGRBs (and normal core-collapse SNe) suggests that at least some of their progenitors follow a different evolutionary path. We speculate that SLSNe arise from massive runaway stars from disrupted binary systems, with velocities of ∼102km s−1.

     
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  2. Abstract

    In 2019 November, we began operating Finding Luminous and Exotic Extragalactic Transients (FLEET), a machine-learning algorithm designed to photometrically identify Type I superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) in transient alert streams. Through this observational campaign, we spectroscopically classified 21 of the 50 SLSNe identified worldwide between 2019 November and 2022 January. Based on our original algorithm, we anticipated that FLEET would achieve a purity of about 50% for transients with a probability of being an SLSN,P(SLSN-I) > 0.5; the true on-sky purity we obtained is closer to 80%. Similarly, we anticipated FLEET could reach a completeness of about 30%, and we indeed measure an upper limit on the completeness of ≲33%. Here we present FLEET 2.0, an updated version of FLEET trained on 4780 transients (almost three times more than FLEET 1.0). FLEET 2.0 has a similar predicted purity to FLEET 1.0 but outperforms FLEET 1.0 in terms of completeness, which is now closer to ≈40% for transients withP(SLSN-I) > 0.5. Additionally, we explore the possible systematics that might arise from the use of FLEET for target selection. We find that the population of SLSNe recovered by FLEET is mostly indistinguishable from the overall SLSN population in terms of physical and most observational parameters. We provide FLEET as an open source package on GitHub: https://github.com/gmzsebastian/FLEET.

     
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  3. Abstract

    We present an expansion of FLEET, a machine-learning algorithm optimized to select transients that are most likely tidal disruption events (TDEs). FLEET is based on a random forest algorithm trained on both the light curves and host galaxy information of 4779 spectroscopically classified transients. We find that for transients with a probability of being a TDE,P(TDE) > 0.5, we can successfully recover TDEs with ≈40% completeness and ≈30% purity when using their first 20 days of photometry or a similar completeness and ≈50% purity when including 40 days of photometry, an improvement of almost 2 orders of magnitude compared to random selection. Alternatively, we can recover TDEs with a maximum purity of ≈80% and a completeness of ≈30% when considering only transients withP(TDE) > 0.8. We explore the use of FLEET for future time-domain surveys such as the Legacy Survey of Space and Time on the Vera C. Rubin Observatory (Rubin) and the Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (Roman). We estimate that ∼104well-observed TDEs could be discovered every year by Rubin and ∼200 TDEs by Roman. Finally, we run FLEET on the TDEs from our Rubin survey simulation and find that we can recover ∼30% of them at redshiftz< 0.5 withP(TDE) > 0.5, or ∼3000 TDEs yr–1that FLEET could uncover from the Rubin stream. We have demonstrated that we will be able to run FLEET on Rubin photometry as soon as this survey begins. FLEET is provided as an open source package on GitHub: https://github.com/gmzsebastian/FLEET.

     
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  4. Abstract

    We present the discovery of the Type II supernova SN 2023ixf in M101 and follow-up photometric and spectroscopic observations, respectively, in the first month and week of its evolution. Our discovery was made within a day of estimated first light, and the following light curve is characterized by a rapid rise (≈5 days) to a luminous peak (MV≈ − 18.2 mag) and plateau (MV≈ − 17.6 mag) extending to 30 days with a fast decline rate of ≈0.03 mag day−1. During the rising phase,UVcolor shows blueward evolution, followed by redward evolution in the plateau phase. Prominent flash features of hydrogen, helium, carbon, and nitrogen dominate the spectra up to ≈5 days after first light, with a transition to a higher ionization state in the first ≈2 days. Both theUVcolor and flash ionization states suggest a rise in the temperature, indicative of a delayed shock breakout inside dense circumstellar material (CSM). From the timescales of CSM interaction, we estimate its compact radial extent of ∼(3–7) × 1014cm. We then construct numerical light-curve models based on both continuous and eruptive mass-loss scenarios shortly before explosion. For the continuous mass-loss scenario, we infer a range of mass-loss history with 0.1–1.0Myr−1in the final 2−1 yr before explosion, with a potentially decreasing mass loss of 0.01–0.1Myr−1in ∼0.7–0.4 yr toward the explosion. For the eruptive mass-loss scenario, we favor eruptions releasing 0.3–1Mof the envelope at about a year before explosion, which result in CSM with mass and extent similar to the continuous scenario. We discuss the implications of the available multiwavelength constraints obtained thus far on the progenitor candidate and SN 2023ixf to our variable CSM models.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2024
  5. Abstract

    Stripped-envelope core-collapse supernovae can be divided into two broad classes: the common Type Ib/c supernovae (SNe Ib/c), powered by the radioactive decay of56Ni, and the rare superluminous supernovae (SLSNe), most likely powered by the spin-down of a magnetar central engine. Up to now, the intermediate regime between these two populations has remained mostly unexplored. Here, we present a comprehensive study of 40luminous supernovae(LSNe), SNe with peak magnitudes ofMr= −19 to −20 mag, bound by SLSNe on the bright end and by SNe Ib/c on the dim end. Spectroscopically, LSNe appear to form a continuum between Type Ic SNe and SLSNe. Given their intermediate nature, we model the light curves of all LSNe using a combined magnetar plus radioactive decay model and find that they are indeed intermediate, not only in terms of their peak luminosity and spectra, but also in their rise times, power sources, and physical parameters. We subclassify LSNe into distinct groups that are either as fast evolving as SNe Ib/c or as slow evolving as SLSNe, and appear to be either radioactively or magnetar powered, respectively. Our findings indicate that LSNe are powered by either an overabundant production of56Ni or by weak magnetar engines, and may serve as the missing link between the two populations.

     
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  6. Abstract

    We present a comprehensive catalog of observations and stellar population properties for 23 highly secure host galaxies of fast radio bursts (FRBs). Our sample comprises 6 repeating FRBs and 17 apparent nonrepeaters. We present 82 new photometric and 8 new spectroscopic observations of these hosts. Using stellar population synthesis modeling and employing nonparametric star formation histories (SFHs), we find that FRB hosts have a median stellar mass of ≈109.9M, mass-weighted age ≈5.1 Gyr, and ongoing star formation rate ≈1.3Myr−1but span wide ranges in all properties. Classifying the hosts by degree of star formation, we find that 87% (20 of 23 hosts) are star-forming, two are transitioning, and one is quiescent. The majority trace the star-forming main sequence of galaxies, but at least three FRBs in our sample originate in less-active environments (two nonrepeaters and one repeater). Across all modeled properties, we find no statistically significant distinction between the hosts of repeaters and nonrepeaters. However, the hosts of repeating FRBs generally extend to lower stellar masses, and the hosts of nonrepeaters arise in more optically luminous galaxies. While four of the galaxies with the clearest and most prolonged rises in their SFHs all host repeating FRBs, demonstrating heightened star formation activity in the last ≲100 Myr, one nonrepeating host shows this SFH as well. Our results support progenitor models with short delay channels (i.e., magnetars formed via core-collapse supernova) for most FRBs, but the presence of some FRBs in less-active environments suggests a fraction form through more delayed channels.

     
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  7. Abstract We present the complete set of Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 and its optical counterpart AT 2017gfo. Including deep template imaging in F814W, F110W, F140W, and F160W at 3.4 yr post-merger, we reanalyze the full light curve of AT 2017gfo across 12 bands from 5 to 1273 rest-frame days after merger. We obtain four new detections of the short γ -ray burst 170817A afterglow from 109 to 170 rest-frame days post-merger. These detections are consistent with the previously observed β = −0.6 spectral index in the afterglow light curve with no evidence for spectral evolution. We also analyze our limits in the context of kilonova afterglow or IR dust echo emission but find that our limits are not constraining for these models. We use the new data to construct deep optical and IR stacks, reaching limits of M = −6.3 to −4.6 mag, to analyze the local environment around AT 2017gfo and low surface brightness features in its host galaxy NGC 4993. We rule out the presence of any globular cluster at the position of AT 2017gfo to 2.3 × 10 4 L ⊙ , including those with the reddest V − H colors. Finally, we analyze the substructure of NGC 4993 in deep residual imaging and find shell features that extend up to 71.″8 (14.2 kpc) from NGC 4993. The shells have a cumulative stellar mass of 6.3 × 10 8 M ⊙ , roughly 2% of NGC 4993, and mass-weighted ages of >3 Gyr. We conclude that it was unlikely that the GW170817 progenitor system formed in the galaxy merger. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
  9. Over the past decade wide-field optical time-domain surveys have increased the discovery rate of transients to the point that ≲10% are being spectroscopically classified. Despite this, these surveys have enabled the discovery of new and rare types of transients, most notably the class of hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSN-I), with about 150 events confirmed to date. Here we present a machine-learning classification algorithm targeted at rapid identification of a pure sample of SLSN-I to enable spectroscopic and multiwavelength follow-up. This algorithm is part of the Finding Luminous and Exotic Extragalactic Transients (FLEET) observational strategy. It utilizes both light-curve and contextual information, but without the need for a redshift, to assign each newly discovered transient a probability of being a SLSN-I. This classifier can achieve a maximum purity of about 85% (with 20% completeness) when observing a selection of SLSN-I candidates. Additionally, we present two alternative classifiers that use either redshifts or complete light curves and can achieve an even higher purity and completeness. At the current discovery rate, the FLEET algorithm can provide about 20 SLSN-I candidates per year for spectroscopic follow-up with 85% purity; with the Legacy Survey of Space and Time we anticipate this will rise to more than $\sim {10}^{3}$ events per year. 
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