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Creators/Authors contains: "Bohn, Paul W."

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2025
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  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 23, 2024
  4. Abstract

    The advent of 3D printing has facilitated the rapid fabrication of microfluidic devices that are accessible and cost‐effective. However, it remains a challenge to fabricate sophisticated microfluidic devices with integrated structural and functional components due to limited material options of existing printing methods and their stringent requirement on feedstock material properties. Here, a multi‐materials multi‐scale hybrid printing method that enables seamless integration of a broad range of structural and functional materials into complex devices is reported. A fully printed and assembly‐free microfluidic biosensor with embedded fluidic channels and functionalized electrodes at sub‐100 µm spatial resolution for the amperometric sensing of lactate in sweat is demonstrated. The sensors present a sensitive response with a limit of detection of 442 nmand a linear dynamic range of 1–10 mm, which are performance characteristics relevant to physiological levels of lactate in sweat. The versatile hybrid printing method offers a new pathway toward facile fabrication of next‐generation integrated devices for broad applications in point‐of‐care health monitoring and sensing.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 26, 2024
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 5, 2024
  6. Structurally regular nanopore arrays fabricated to contain independently controllable annular electrodes represent a new kind of architecture capable of electrochemically addressing small collections of matter—down to the single entity (molecule, particle, and biological cell) level. Furthermore, these nanopore electrode arrays (NEAs) can also be interrogated optically to achieve single entity spectroelectrochemistry. Larger entities such as nanoparticles and single bacterial cells are investigated by dark-field scattering and potential-controlled single-cell luminescence experiments, respectively, while NEA-confined molecules are probed by single molecule luminescence. By carrying out these experiments in arrays of identically constructed nanopores, massively parallel collections of single entities can be investigated simultaneously. The multilayer metal–insulator design of the NEAs enables highly efficient redox cycling experiments with large increases in analytical sensitivity for chemical sensing applications. NEAs may also be augmented with an additional orthogonally designed nanopore layer, such as a structured block copolymer, to achieve hierarchically organized multilayer structures with multiple stimulus-responsive transport control mechanisms. Finally, NEAs constructed with a transparent bottom layer permit optical access to the interior of the nanopore, which can result in the cutoff of far-field mode propagation, effectively trapping radiation in an ultrasmall volume inside the nanopore. The bottom metal layer may be used as both a working electrode and an optical cladding layer, thus, producing bifunctional electrochemical zero-mode waveguide architectures capable of carrying out spectroelectrochemical investigations down to the single molecule level. 
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  7. Wetting and dewetting behavior in channel-confined hydrophobic volumes is used in biological membranes to effect selective ion/molecular transport. Artificial biomimetic hydrophobic nanopores have been devised utilizing wetting and dewetting, however, tunable mass transport control utilizing multiple transport modes is required for applications such as controllable release/transport, water separation/purification and energy conversion. Here, we investigate the potential-induced wetting and dewetting behavior in a pH-responsive membrane composed of a polystyrene- b -poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS- b -P4VP) block copolymer (BCP) when fabricated as a hierarchically-organized sandwich structure on a nanopore electrode array (NEA), i.e. BCP@NEA. At pH < p K a (P4VP) (p K a ∼ 4.8), the BCP acts as an anion-exchange membrane due to the hydrophilic, protonated P4VP cylindrical nanodomains, but at pH > p K a (P4VP), the P4VP domains exhibit charge-neutral, hydrophobic and collapsed structures, blocking mass transport via the hydrophobic membrane. However, when originally prepared in a dewetted condition, mass transport in the BCP membrane may be switched on if sufficiently negative potentials are applied to the BCP@NEA architecture. When the hydrophobic BCP membrane is introduced on top of 2-electrode-embedded nanopore arrays, electrolyte solution in the nanopores is introduced, then isolated, by exploiting the potential-induced wetting and dewetting transitions in the BCP membrane. The potential-induced wetting/dewetting transition and the effect on cyclic voltammetry in the BCP@NEA structures is characterized as a function of the potential, pH and ionic strength. In addition, chronoamperometry and redox cycling experiments are used to further characterize the potential response. The multi-modal mass transport system proposed in this work will be useful for ultrasensitive sensing and single-molecule studies, which require long-time monitoring to explore reaction dynamics as well as molecular heterogeneity in nanoconfined volumes. 
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