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  1. Abstract

    Feedback likely plays a crucial role in resolving discrepancies between observations and theoretical predictions of dwarf galaxy properties. Stellar feedback was once believed to be sufficient to explain these discrepancies, but it has thus far failed to fully reconcile theory and observations. The recent discovery of energetic galaxy-wide outflows in dwarf galaxies hosting active galactic nuclei (AGNs) suggests that AGN feedback may have a larger role in the evolution of dwarf galaxies than previously suspected. In order to assess the relative importance of stellar versus AGN feedback in these galaxies, we perform a detailed Keck/KCWI optical integral field spectroscopic study of a sample of low-redshift star-forming (SF) dwarf galaxies that show outflows in ionized gas in their Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectra. We characterize the outflows and compare them to observations of AGN-driven outflows in dwarfs. We find that SF dwarfs have outflow components that have comparable widths (W80) to those of outflows in AGN dwarfs, but are much less blueshifted, indicating that SF dwarfs have significantly slower outflows than their AGN counterparts. Outflows in SF dwarfs are spatially resolved and significantly more extended than those in AGN dwarfs. The mass-loss, momentum, and energy rates of star-formation-driven outflows are much lower than those of AGN-driven outflows. Our results indicate that AGN feedback in the form of gas outflows may play an important role in dwarf galaxies and should be considered along with SF feedback in models of dwarf galaxy evolution.

     
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  2. Abstract

    The discovery over the last several decades of low- and moderate-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in disk-dominated galaxies—which show no “classical” bulges—suggests that secular mechanisms represent an important growth pathway for supermassive black holes in these systems. We present new follow-up NuSTAR observations of the optically elusive AGNs in two bulgeless galaxies, NGC 4178 and J0851+3926. Galaxy NGC 4178 was originally reported as hosting an AGN based on the detection of [Nev] mid-infrared emission detected by Spitzer, and based on Chandra X-ray imaging, it has since been argued to host either a heavily obscured AGN or a supernova remnant. Galaxy J0851+3926 was originally identified as an AGN based on its Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR colors, and follow-up near-infrared spectroscopy previously revealed a hidden broad-line region, offering compelling evidence for an optically elusive AGN. Neither AGN is detected within the new NuSTAR imaging, and we derive upper limits on the hard X-ray 10–24 keV fluxes of <7.41 × 10−14and <9.40 × 10−14erg cm−2s−1for the AGNs in NGC 4178 and J0851+3926, respectively. If these nondetections are due to large absorbing columns along the line of sight, the nondetections in NGC 4178 and J0851+3926 could be explained with column densities of log(NH/cm2) > 24.2 and 24.1, respectively. The nature of the nuclear activity in NGC 4178 remains inconclusive; it is plausible that the [Nev] traces a period of higher activity in the past, but that the AGN is relatively quiescent now. The nondetection in J0851+3926 and multiwavelength properties are consistent with the AGN being heavily obscured.

     
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  3. Abstract

    We present new JWST NIRSpec integral field spectroscopy (IFS) data for the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 7469, a nearby (70.6 Mpc) active galaxy with a Seyfert 1.5 nucleus that drives a highly ionized gas outflow and a prominent nuclear star-forming ring. Using the superb sensitivity and high spatial resolution of the JWST instrument NIRSpec IFS, we investigate the role of the Seyfert nucleus in the excitation and dynamics of the circumnuclear gas. Our analysis focuses on the [Feii], H2, and hydrogen recombination lines that trace the radiation/shocked-excited molecular and ionized interstellar medium around the active galactic nucleus (AGN). We investigate gas excitation through H2/Brγand [Feii]/Paβemission line ratios and find that photoionization by the AGN dominates within the central 300 pc of the galaxy except in a small region that shows signatures of shock-heated gas; these shock-heated regions are likely associated with a compact radio jet. In addition, the velocity field and velocity dispersion maps reveal complex gas kinematics. Rotation is the dominant feature, but we also identify noncircular motions consistent with gas inflows as traced by the velocity residuals and the spiral pattern in the Paαvelocity dispersion map. The inflow is 2 orders of magnitude higher than the AGN accretion rate. The compact nuclear radio jet has enough power to drive the highly ionized outflow. This scenario suggests that the inflow and outflow are in a self-regulating feeding–feedback process, with a contribution from the radio jet helping to drive the outflow.

     
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  4. Abstract

    While it is generally believed that supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lie in most galaxies with bulges, few SMBHs have been confirmed in bulgeless galaxies. Identifying such a population could provide important insights to the BH seed population and secular BH growth. To this end, we obtained near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic observations of a sample of low-redshift bulgeless galaxies with mid-infrared colors suggestive of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We find additional evidence of AGN activity (such as coronal lines and broad permitted lines) in 69% (9/13) of the sample, demonstrating that mid-infrared selection is a powerful tool to detect AGNs. More than half of the galaxies with confirmed AGN activity show fast outflows in [Oiii] in the optical and/or [Sivi] in the NIR, with the latter generally having much faster velocities that are also correlated to their spatial extent. We are also able to obtain virial BH masses for some targets and find they fall within the scatter of other late-type galaxies in theMBHMstellarrelation. The fact that they lack a significant bulge component indicates that secular processes, likely independent of major mergers, grew these BHs to supermassive sizes. Finally, we analyze the rotational gas kinematics and find two notable exceptions: two AGN hosts with outflows that appear to be rotating faster than expected. There is an indication that these two galaxies have stellar masses significantly lower than expected from their dark matter halo masses. This, combined with the observed AGN activity and strong gas outflows, may be evidence of the effects of AGN feedback.

     
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  6. Abstract We present James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) imaging of NGC 7469 with the Near-Infrared Camera and the Mid-InfraRed Instrument. NGC 7469 is a nearby, z = 0.01627, luminous infrared galaxy that hosts both a Seyfert Type-1.5 nucleus and a circumnuclear starburst ring with a radius of ∼0.5 kpc. The new near-infrared (NIR) JWST imaging reveals 66 star-forming regions, 37 of which were not detected by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. Twenty-eight of the 37 sources have very red NIR colors that indicate obscurations up to A v ∼ 7 and a contribution of at least 25% from hot dust emission to the 4.4 μ m band. Their NIR colors are also consistent with young (<5 Myr) stellar populations and more than half of them are coincident with the mid-infrared (MIR) emission peaks. These younger, dusty star-forming regions account for ∼6% and ∼17% of the total 1.5 and 4.4 μ m luminosity of the starburst ring, respectively. Thanks to JWST, we find a significant number of young dusty sources that were previously unseen due to dust extinction. The newly identified 28 young sources are a significant increase compared to the number of HST-detected young sources (4–5). This makes the total percentage of the young population rise from ∼15% to 48%. These results illustrate the effectiveness of JWST in identifying and characterizing previously hidden star formation in the densest star-forming environments around active galactic nuclei (AGN). 
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  7. Abstract We present James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) Mid-Infrared Instrument (MIRI) integral-field spectroscopy of the nearby merging, luminous infrared galaxy, NGC 7469. This galaxy hosts a Seyfert type-1.5 nucleus, a highly ionized outflow, and a bright, circumnuclear star-forming ring, making it an ideal target to study active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in the local universe. We take advantage of the high spatial/spectral resolution of JWST/MIRI to isolate the star-forming regions surrounding the central active nucleus and study the properties of the dust and warm molecular gas on ∼100 pc scales. The starburst ring exhibits prominent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, with grain sizes and ionization states varying by only ∼30%, and a total star formation rate of 10–30 M ⊙ yr −1 derived from fine structure and recombination emission lines. Using pure rotational lines of H 2 we detect 1.2 × 10 7 M ⊙ of warm molecular gas at a temperature higher than 200 K in the ring. All PAH bands get significantly weaker toward the central source, where larger and possibly more ionized grains dominate the emission, likely the result of the ionizing radiation and/or the fast wind emerging from the AGN. The small grains and warm molecular gas in the bright regions of the ring however display properties consistent with normal star-forming regions. These observations highlight the power of JWST to probe the inner regions of dusty, rapidly evolving galaxies for signatures of feedback and inform models that seek to explain the coevolution of supermassive black holes and their hosts. 
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  9. Abstract

    We combine our dynamical modeling black-hole mass measurements from the Lick AGN Monitoring Project 2016 sample with measured cross-correlation time lags and line widths to recover individual scale factors,f, used in traditional reverberation-mapping analyses. We extend our sample by including prior results from Code for AGN Reverberation and Modeling of Emission Lines (caramel) studies that have utilized our methods. Aiming to improve the precision of black-hole mass estimates, as well as uncover any regularities in the behavior of the broad-line region (BLR), we search for correlations betweenfand other AGN/BLR parameters. We find (i) evidence for a correlation between the virial coefficientlog10(fmean,σ)and black-hole mass, (ii) marginal evidence for a similar correlation betweenlog10(frms,σ)and black-hole mass, (iii) marginal evidence for an anticorrelation of BLR disk thickness withlog10(fmean,FWHM)andlog10(frms,FWHM), and (iv) marginal evidence for an anticorrelation of inclination angle withlog10(fmean,FWHM),log10(frms,σ), andlog10(fmean,σ). Last, we find marginal evidence for a correlation between line-profile shape, when using the root-mean-square spectrum,log10(FWHM/σ)rms, and the virial coefficient,log10(frms,σ), and investigate how BLR properties might be related to line-profile shape usingcaramelmodels.

     
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