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  1. Abstract

    We present the analysis of three more planets from the KMTNet 2021 microlensing season. KMT-2021-BLG-0119Lb is a ∼6MJupplanet orbiting an early M dwarf or a K dwarf, KMT-2021-BLG-0192Lb is a ∼2MNepplanet orbiting an M dwarf, and KMT-2021-BLG-2294Lb is a ∼1.25MNepplanet orbiting a very-low-mass M dwarf or a brown dwarf. These by-eye planet detections provide an important comparison sample to the sample selected with the AnomalyFinder algorithm, and in particular, KMT-2021-BLG-2294 is a case of a planet detected by eye but not by algorithm. KMT-2021-BLG-2294Lb is part of a population of microlensing planets around very-low-mass host stars that spans the full range of planet masses, in contrast to the planet population at ≲0.1 au, which shows a strong preference for small planets.

  2. Abstract We present Keck/NIRC2 adaptive optics imaging of planetary microlensing event MOA-2007-BLG-400 that resolves the lens star system from the source. We find that the MOA-2007-BLG-400L planetary system consists of a 1.71 ± 0.27 M Jup planet orbiting a 0.69 ± 0.04 M ⊙ K-dwarf host star at a distance of 6.89 ± 0.77 kpc from the Sun. So, this planetary system probably resides in the Galactic bulge. The planet–host star projected separation is only weakly constrained due to the close-wide light-curve degeneracy; the 2 σ projected separation ranges are 0.6–1.0 au and 4.7–7.7 au for close and wide solutions, respectively. This host mass is at the top end of the range of masses predicted by a standard Bayesian analysis. Our Keck follow-up program has now measured lens-source separations for six planetary microlensing events, and five of these six events have host star masses above the median prediction under the assumption that assumes that all stars have an equal chance of hosting planets detectable by microlensing. This suggests that more massive stars may be more likely to host planets of a fixed mass ratio that orbit near or beyond the snow line. These results also indicate the importance of hostmore »star mass measurements for exoplanets found by microlensing. The microlensing survey imaging data from NASA’s Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope (formerly WFIRST) mission will be doing mass measurements like this for a huge number of planetary events.« less
  3. Aims. The high-magnification microlensing event KMT-2021-BLG-1077 exhibits a subtle and complex anomaly pattern in the region around the peak. We analyze the lensing light curve of the event with the aim of revealing the nature of the anomaly. Methods. We test various models in combination with several interpretations: that the lens is a binary (2L1S), the source is a binary (1L2S), both the lens and source are binaries (2L2S), or the lens is a triple system (3L1S). We search for the best-fit models under the individual interpretations of the lens and source systems. Results. We find that the anomaly cannot be explained by the usual three-body (2L1S and 1L2S) models. The 2L2S model improves the fit compared to the three-body models, but it still leaves noticeable residuals. On the other hand, the 3L1S interpretation yields a model explaining all the major anomalous features in the lensing light curve. According to the 3L1S interpretation, the estimated mass ratios of the lens companions to the primary are ~1.56 × 10 −3 and ~1.75 × 10 −3 , which correspond to ~1.6 and ~1.8 times the Jupiter/Sun mass ratio, respectively, and therefore the lens is a multiplanetary system containing two giant planets. Withmore »the constraints of the event time-scale and angular Einstein radius, it is found that the host of the lens system is a low-mass star of mid-to-late M spectral type with amass of M h = 0.14 −0.07 +0.19 M Θ , and it hosts two gas giant planets with masses of M p1 = 0.22 −0.12 +0.31 M J and M p2 = 0.25 −0.13 +0.35 . The planets lie beyond the snow line of the host with projected separations of a ⊥,p1 = 1.26 −1.08 +1.41 AU and a ⊥,p2 = 0.93 −0.80 +1.05 AU. The planetary system resides in the Galactic bulge at a distance of D L = 8.24 −1.16 +1.02 kpc. The lens of the event is the fifth confirmed multiplanetary system detected by microlensing following OGLE-2006-BLG-109L, OGLE-2012-BLG-0026L, OGLE-2018-BLG-1011L, and OGLE-2019-BLG-0468L.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  4. Aims. With the aim of finding short-term planetary signals, we investigated the data collected from current high-cadence microlensing surveys. Methods. From this investigation, we found four planetary systems with low planet-to-host mass ratios, including OGLE-2017-BLG-1691L, KMT-2021-BLG-0320L, KMT-2021-BLG-1303L, and KMT-2021-BLG-1554L. Despite the short durations, ranging from a few hours to a couple of days, the planetary signals were clearly detected by the combined data of the lensing surveys. We found that three of the planetary systems have mass ratios on the order of 10 −4 and the other has a mass ratio that is slightly greater than 10 −3 . Results. The estimated masses indicate that all discovered planets have sub-Jovian masses. The planet masses of KMT-2021-BLG-0320Lb, KMT-2021-BLG-1303Lb, and KMT-2021-BLG-1554Lb correspond to ~0.10, ~0.38, and ~0.12 times the mass of the Jupiter, and the mass of OGLE-2017-BLG-1691Lb corresponds to that of the Uranus. The estimated mass of the planet host KMT-2021-BLG-1554L, M host ~ 0.08 M ⊙ , corresponds to the boundary between a star and a brown dwarf. Besides this system, the host stars of the other planetary systems are low-mass stars with masses in the range of ~[0.3–0.6] M ⊙ . The discoveries of the planets fully demonstrate themore »capability of the current high-cadence microlensing surveys in detecting low-mass planets.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  5. We complete the analysis of all 2018 prime-field microlensing planets identified by the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet) Anomaly Finder. Among the ten previously unpublished events with clear planetary solutions, eight are either unambiguously planetary or are very likely to be planetary in nature: OGLE-2018-BLG-1126, KMT-2018-BLG-2004, OGLE-2018-BLG-1647, OGLE-2018-BLG-1367, OGLE-2018-BLG-1544, OGLE-2018-BLG-0932, OGLE-2018-BLG-1212, and KMT-2018-BLG-2718. Combined with the four previously published new Anomaly Finder events and 12 previously published (or in preparation) planets that were discovered by eye, this makes a total of 24 2018 prime-field planets discovered or recovered by Anomaly Finder. Together with a paper in preparation on 2018 subprime planets, this work lays the basis for the first statistical analysis of the planet mass-ratio function based on planets identified in KMTNet data. By systematically applying the heuristic analysis to each event, we identified the small modification in their formalism that is needed to unify the so-called close-wide and inner-outer degeneracies.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  6. Abstract We report on the observations, analysis and interpretation of the microlensing event MOA-2019-BLG-008. The observed anomaly in the photometric light curve is best described through a binary lens model. In this model, the source did not cross caustics and no finite-source effects were observed. Therefore, the angular Einstein ring radius θ E cannot be measured from the light curve alone. However, the large event duration, t E ∼ 80 days, allows a precise measurement of the microlensing parallax π E . In addition to the constraints on the angular radius θ * and the apparent brightness I s of the source, we employ the Besançon and GalMod galactic models to estimate the physical properties of the lens. We find excellent agreement between the predictions of the two galactic models: the companion is likely a resident of the brown dwarf desert with a mass M p ∼ 30 M Jup , and the host is a main-sequence dwarf star. The lens lies along the line of sight to the Galactic bulge, at a distance of ≤4 kpc. We estimate that in about 10 yr the lens and source will be separated by ∼55 mas, and it will be possible tomore »confirm the exact nature of the lensing system by using high-resolution imaging from ground- or space-based observatories.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 2, 2023
  7. ABSTRACT

    Follow-up observations of high-magnification gravitational microlensing events can fully exploit their intrinsic sensitivity to detect extrasolar planets, especially those with small mass ratios. To make followup observations more uniform and efficient, we develop a system, HighMagFinder, to automatically alert possible ongoing high-magnification events based on the real-time data from the Korea Microlensing Telescope Network (KMTNet). We started a new phase of follow-up observations with the help of HighMagFinder in 2021. Here we report the discovery of two planets in high-magnification microlensing events, KMT-2021-BLG-0171 and KMT-2021-BLG-1689, which were identified by the HighMagFinder. We find that both events suffer the ‘central-resonant’ caustic degeneracy. The planet-host mass-ratio is q ∼ 4.7 × 10−5 or q ∼ 2.2 × 10−5 for KMT-2021-BLG-0171, and q ∼ 2.5 × 10−4 or q ∼ 1.8 × 10−4 for KMT-2021-BLG-1689. Together with two other events, four cases that suffer such degeneracy have been discovered in the 2021 season alone, indicating that the degenerate solutions may have been missed in some previous studies. We also propose a quantitative factor to weight the probability of each solution from the phase space. The resonant interpretations for the two events are disfavoured under this consideration. This factor can be included in future statistical studies to weight degenerate solutions.

  8. Abstract OGLE-2016-BLG-1093 is a planetary microlensing event that is part of the statistical Spitzer microlens parallax sample. The precise measurement of the microlens parallax effect for this event, combined with the measurement of finite-source effects, leads to a direct measurement of the lens masses and system distance, M host =0.38–0.57 M ⊙ and m p = 0.59–0.87 M Jup , and the system is located at the Galactic bulge ( D L ∼ 8.1 kpc). Because this was a high-magnification event, we are also able to empirically show that the “cheap-space parallax” concept produces well-constrained (and consistent) results for ∣ π E ∣. This demonstrates that this concept can be extended to many two-body lenses. Finally, we briefly explore systematics in the Spitzer light curve in this event and show that their potential impact is strongly mitigated by the color constraint.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 10, 2023
  9. Aims. The light curve of the microlensing event KMT-2021-BLG-0912 exhibits a very short anomaly relative to a single-lens single-source form. We investigate the light curve for the purpose of identifying the origin of the anomaly. Methods. We model the light curve under various interpretations. From this, we find four solutions, in which three solutions are found underthe assumption that the lens is composed of two masses (2L1S models), and the other solution is found under the assumption that the source is comprised of binary stars (1L2S model). The 1L2S model is ruled out based on the contradiction that the faint source companion is bigger than its primary, and one of the 2L1S solutions is excluded from the combination of the poorer fit, blending constraint, and lower overall probability, leaving two surviving solutions with the planet/host mass ratios of q ~ 2.8 × 10 −5 and ~ 1.1 × 10 −5 . A subtle central deviation supports the possibility of a tertiary lens component, either a binary companion to the host with a very large or small separation, or a second planet lying near the Einstein ring, but it is difficult to claim a secure detection due to the marginal improvementmore »of the fit, lack of consistency among different data sets, and difficulty in uniquely specifying the nature of the tertiary component. Results. With the observables of the event, it is estimated that the masses of the planet and host are ~ (6.9  M ⊕ , 0.75  M ⊙ ) according to one solution and~(2.8  M ⊕ , 0.80  M ⊙ ) according to the other, indicating that the planet is a super Earth around a K-type star, regardless of the solution. The fact that 16 (including the one reported in this work) out of 19 microlensing planets with M ≲ 10  M ⊕ were detected during the last 6 yr nicely demonstrates the importance of high-cadence global surveys in detecting very low-mass planets.« less