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    We present extensive ultraviolet (UV) and optical photometric and optical spectroscopic follow-up of supernova (SN) 2021gno by the ‘Precision Observations of Infant Supernova Explosions’ (POISE) project, starting less than 2 d after the explosion. Given its intermediate luminosity, fast photometric evolution, and quick transition to the nebular phase with spectra dominated by [Ca ii] lines, SN 2021gno belongs to the small family of Calcium-rich transients. Moreover, it shows double-peaked light curves, a phenomenon shared with only four other Calcium-rich events. The projected distance from the centre of the host galaxy is not as large as other objects in this family. The initial optical light-curve peaks coincide with a very quick decline of the UV flux, indicating a fast initial cooling phase. Through hydrodynamical modelling of the bolometric light curve and line velocity evolution, we found that the observations are compatible with the explosion of a highly stripped massive star with an ejecta mass of $0.8\, M_\odot$ and a 56Ni mass of 0.024 M⊙. The initial cooling phase (first light-curve peak) is explained by the presence of an extended circumstellar material comprising ∼$10^{-2}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }$ with an extension of $1100\, R_{\odot }$. We discuss if hydrogen features are present in bothmore »maximum-light and nebular spectra, and their implications in terms of the proposed progenitor scenarios for Calcium-rich transients.

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  2. Abstract

    Using data from the Complete Nearby (redshiftzhost< 0.02) sample of Type Ia Supernovae (CNIa0.02), we find a linear relation between two parameters derived from theBVcolor curves of Type Ia supernovae: thecolor stretchsBVand the rising color slopes0*(BV)after the peak, and this relation applies to the full range ofsBV. ThesBVparameter is known to be tightly correlated with the peak luminosity, especially forfast decliners(dim Type Ia supernovae), and the luminosity correlation withsBVis markedly better than with the classic light-curve width parameters such as Δm15(B). Thus, our new linear relation can be used to infer peak luminosity froms0*. UnlikesBV(or Δm15(B)), the measurement ofs0*(BV)does not rely on a well-determined time of light-curve peak or color maximum, making it less demanding on the light-curve coverage than past approaches.

  3. Abstract We present and analyze a near-infrared (NIR) spectrum of the underluminous Type Ia supernova SN 2020qxp/ASASSN-20jq obtained with NIRES at the Keck Observatory, 191 days after B -band maximum. The spectrum is dominated by a number of broad emission features, including the [Fe ii ] at 1.644 μ m, which is highly asymmetric with a tilted top and a peak redshifted by ≈2000 km s −1 . In comparison with 2D non-LTE synthetic spectra computed from 3D simulations of off-center delayed-detonation Chandrasekhar-mass ( M ch ) white dwarf (WD) models, we find good agreement between the observed lines and the synthetic profiles, and are able to unravel the structure of the progenitor’s envelope. We find that the size and tilt of the [Fe ii ] 1.644 μ m profile (in velocity space) is an effective way to determine the location of an off-center delayed-detonation transition (DDT) and the viewing angle, and it requires a WD with a high central density of ∼4 × 10 9 g cm −3 . We also tentatively identify a stable Ni feature around 1.9 μ m characterized by a “pot-belly” profile that is slightly offset with respect to the kinematic center. In the casemore »of SN 2020qxp/ASASSN-20jq, we estimate that the location of the DDT is ∼0.3 M WD off center, which gives rise to an asymmetric distribution of the underlying ejecta. We also demonstrate that low-luminosity and high-density WD SN Ia progenitors exhibit a very strong overlap of Ca and 56 Ni in physical space. This results in the formation of a prevalent [Ca ii ] 0.73 μ m emission feature that is sensitive to asymmetry effects. Our findings are discussed within the context of alternative scenarios, including off-center C/O detonations in He-triggered sub- M Ch WDs and the direct collision of two WDs. Snapshot programs with Gemini/Keck/Very Large Telescope (VLT)/ELT-class instruments and our spectropolarimetry program are complementary to mid-IR spectra by the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).« less

    We catalogue the 443 bright supernovae (SNe) discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) in 2018−2020 along with the 519 SNe recovered by ASAS-SN and 516 additional mpeak ≤ 18 mag SNe missed by ASAS-SN. Our statistical analysis focuses primarily on the 984 SNe discovered or recovered in ASAS-SN g-band observations. The complete sample of 2427 ASAS-SN SNe includes earlier V-band samples and unrecovered SNe. For each SN, we identify the host galaxy, its UV to mid-IR photometry, and the SN’s offset from the centre of the host. Updated peak magnitudes, redshifts, spectral classifications, and host galaxy identifications supersede earlier results. With the increase of the limiting magnitude to g ≤ 18 mag, the ASAS-SN sample is nearly complete up to mpeak = 16.7 mag and is 90 per cent complete for mpeak ≤ 17.0 mag. This is an increase from the V-band sample, where it was roughly complete up to mpeak = 16.2 mag and 70 per cent complete for mpeak ≤ 17.0 mag.

  5. We present an observational study of the luminous red nova (LRN) AT 2021biy in the nearby galaxy NGC 4631. The field of the object was routinely imaged during the pre-eruptive stage by synoptic surveys, but the transient was detected only at a few epochs from ∼231 days before maximum brightness. The LRN outburst was monitored with unprecedented cadence both photometrically and spectroscopically. AT 2021biy shows a short-duration blue peak, with a bolometric luminosity of ∼1.6 × 10 41 erg s −1 , followed by the longest plateau among LRNe to date, with a duration of 210 days. A late-time hump in the light curve was also observed, possibly produced by a shell-shell collision. AT 2021biy exhibits the typical spectral evolution of LRNe. Early-time spectra are characterised by a blue continuum and prominent H emission lines. Then, the continuum becomes redder, resembling that of a K-type star with a forest of metal absorption lines during the plateau phase. Finally, late-time spectra show a very red continuum ( T BB  ≈ 2050 K) with molecular features (e.g., TiO) resembling those of M-type stars. Spectropolarimetric analysis indicates that AT 2021biy has local dust properties similar to those of V838 Mon in the Milky Way Galaxy. Inspectionmore »of archival Hubble Space Telescope data taken on 2003 August 3 reveals a ∼20 M ⊙ progenitor candidate with log ( L / L ⊙ ) = 5.0 dex and T eff  = 5900 K at solar metallicity. The above luminosity and colour match those of a luminous yellow supergiant. Most likely, this source is a close binary, with a 17–24 M ⊙ primary component.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2023

    SN 2018hti was a very nearby (z = 0.0614) superluminous supernova with an exceedingly bright absolute magnitude of −21.7 mag in r band at maximum. The densely sampled pre-maximum light curves of SN 2018hti show a slow luminosity evolution and constrain the rise time to ∼50 rest-frame d. We fitted synthetic light curves to the photometry to infer the physical parameters of the explosion of SN 2018hti for both the magnetar and the CSM-interaction scenarios. We conclude that one of two mechanisms could be powering the luminosity of SN 2018hti; interaction with ∼10 M⊙ of circumstellar material or a magnetar with a magnetic field of Bp∼ 1.3 × 1013 G, and initial period of Pspin∼ 1.8 ms. From the nebular spectrum modelling we infer that SN 2018hti likely results from the explosion of a ${\sim}40\, \mathrm{M}_\odot$ progenitor star.

  7. Abstract

    The CNIa0.02 project aims to collect a complete, nearby sample of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) light curves, and the SNe are volume-limited with host-galaxy redshiftszhost< 0.02. The main scientific goal is to infer the distributions of key properties (e.g., the luminosity function) of local SNe Ia in a complete and unbiased fashion in order to study SN explosion physics. We spectroscopically classify any SN candidate detected by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) that reaches a peak brightness <16.5 mag. Since ASAS-SN scans the full sky and does not target specific galaxies, our target selection is effectively unbiased by host-galaxy properties. We perform multiband photometric observations starting from the time of discovery. In the first data release (DR1), we present the optical light curves obtained for 247 SNe from our project (including 148 SNe in the complete sample), and we derive parameters such as the peak fluxes, Δm15, andsBV.

  8. ABSTRACT We present observations of ASASSN-19dj, a nearby tidal disruption event (TDE) discovered in the post-starburst galaxy KUG 0810+227 by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernovae (ASAS-SN) at a distance of d ≃ 98 Mpc. We observed ASASSN-19dj from −21 to 392 d relative to peak ultraviolet (UV)/optical emission using high-cadence, multiwavelength spectroscopy and photometry. From the ASAS-SN g-band data, we determine that the TDE began to brighten on 2019 February 6.8 and for the first 16 d the rise was consistent with a flux ∝t2 power law. ASASSN-19dj peaked in the UV/optical on 2019 March 6.5 (MJD = 58548.5) at a bolometric luminosity of L = (6.2 ± 0.2) × 1044 erg s−1. Initially remaining roughly constant in X-rays and slowly fading in the UV/optical, the X-ray flux increased by over an order of magnitude ∼225 d after peak, resulting from the expansion of the X-ray emitting region. The late-time X-ray emission is well fitted by a blackbody with an effective radius of ∼1 × 1012 cm and a temperature of ∼6 × 105 K. The X-ray hardness ratio becomes softer after brightening and then returns to a harder state as the X-rays fade. Analysis of Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey images reveals a nuclear outburst roughly 14.5 yr earlier with a smooth declinemore »and a luminosity of LV ≥ 1.4 × 1043 erg s−1, although the nature of the flare is unknown. ASASSN-19dj occurred in the most extreme post-starburst galaxy yet to host a TDE, with Lick HδA = 7.67 ± 0.17 Å.« less

    We present the results from a high-cadence, multiwavelength observation campaign of AT 2016jbu (aka Gaia16cfr), an interacting transient. This data set complements the current literature by adding higher cadence as well as extended coverage of the light-curve evolution and late-time spectroscopic evolution. Photometric coverage reveals that AT 2016jbu underwent significant photometric variability followed by two luminous events, the latter of which reached an absolute magnitude of MV ∼ −18.5 mag. This is similar to the transient SN 2009ip whose nature is still debated. Spectra are dominated by narrow emission lines and show a blue continuum during the peak of the second event. AT 2016jbu shows signatures of a complex, non-homogeneous circumstellar material (CSM). We see slowly evolving asymmetric hydrogen line profiles, with velocities of 500 km s−1 seen in narrow emission features from a slow-moving CSM, and up to 10 000 km s−1 seen in broad absorption from some high-velocity material. Late-time spectra (∼+1 yr) show a lack of forbidden emission lines expected from a core-collapse supernova and are dominated by strong emission from H, He i, and Ca ii. Strong asymmetric emission features, a bumpy light curve, and continually evolving spectra suggest an inhibit nebular phase. We compare the evolution of H α among SN 2009ip-like transients and find possible evidence formore »orientation angle effects. The light-curve evolution of AT 2016jbu suggests similar, but not identical, circumstellar environments to other SN 2009ip-like transients.

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    We present the bolometric light curve, identification and analysis of the progenitor candidate, and preliminary modelling of AT 2016jbu (Gaia16cfr). We find a progenitor consistent with a ∼ 22–25 M⊙ yellow hypergiant surrounded by a dusty circumstellar shell, in agreement with what has been previously reported. We see evidence for significant photometric variability in the progenitor, as well as strong Hα emission consistent with pre-existing circumstellar material. The age of the environment, as well as the resolved stellar population surrounding AT 2016jbu, supports a progenitor age of >10 Myr, consistent with a progenitor mass of ∼22 M⊙. A joint analysis of the velocity evolution of AT 2016jbu and the photospheric radius inferred from the bolometric light curve shows the transient is consistent with two successive outbursts/explosions. The first outburst ejected material with velocity ∼650 km s−1, while the second, more energetic event ejected material at ∼4500 km s−1. Whether the latter is the core collapse of the progenitor remains uncertain. We place a limit on the ejected 56Ni mass of <0.016 M⊙. Using the Binary Population And Spectral Synthesis (BPASS) code, we explore a wide range of possible progenitor systems and find that the majority of these are in binaries, some of which are undergoing mass transfer or common-envelope evolution immediatelymore »prior to explosion. Finally, we use the SuperNova Explosion Code (SNEC) to demonstrate that the low-energy explosions within some of these binary systems, together with sufficient circumstellar material, can reproduce the overall morphology of the light curve of AT 2016jbu.

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