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  4. We show that the polymer-grafted nanoparticles (NPs) initially welldispersed in a polymer matrix segregate to the free surface of a film upon thermal annealing in the one-phase region of the phase diagram because the grafted polymer has a lower surface energy than the matrix polymer. Using a combination of atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, the evolution of the poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted silica NP (PMMA NP) surface excess in 25/75 wt % PMMA NP/poly(styrene-ranacrylonitrile) films is observed as a function of annealing time at 150 °C (T < TLCST). The temporal growth of the surface excess is interpreted as a competition between entropic contributions, surface energy differences of the constituents, and the Flory−Huggins interaction parameter, χ. For the first time in a miscible polymer nanocomposite mixture, quantitative comparisons of NP surface segregation are made with the predictions of theory derived for analogous polymer blends. These studies provide insight for designing polymer nanocomposite films with advantageous surface properties such as wettability and hardness and motivate the need for developing rigorous models that capture complex polymer nanocomposite phase behaviors. 
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  5. Biodiversity assessments are critical for setting conservation priorities, understanding ecosystem function and establishing a baseline to monitor change. Surveys of marine biodiversity that rely almost entirely on sampling adult organisms underestimate diversity because they tend to be limited to habitat types and individuals that can be easily surveyed. Many marine animals have planktonic larvae that can be sampled from the water column at shallow depths. This life stage often is overlooked in surveys but can be used to relatively rapidly document diversity, especially for the many species that are rare or live cryptically as adults. Using DNA barcode data from samples of nemertean worms collected in three biogeographical regions—Northeastern Pacific, the Caribbean Sea and Eastern Tropical Pacific—we found that most species were collected as either benthic adults or planktonic larvae but seldom in both stages. Randomization tests show that this deficit of operational taxonomic units collected as both adults and larvae is extremely unlikely if larvae and adults were drawn from the same pool of species. This effect persists even in well-studied faunas. These results suggest that sampling planktonic larvae offers access to a different subset of species and thus significantly increases estimates of biodiversity compared to sampling adults alone. Spanish abstract is available in the electronic supplementary material. 
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