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  1. null (Ed.)
    Summary The need for efficient tools and applications for analyzing genomic diversity is essential for any genetics research program. One such tool, TASSEL (Trait Analysis by aSSociation, Evolution and Linkage), provides many core methods for genomic analyses. Despite its efficiency, TASSEL has limited means to use scripting languages for reproducible research and interacting with other analytical tools. Here we present an R package rTASSEL, a front-end to connect to a variety of highly used TASSEL methods and analytical tools. The goal of this package is to create a unified scripting workflow that exploits the analytical prowess of TASSEL in conjunction with R’s popular data handling and parsing capabilities without ever having the user to switch between these two environments. By implementing this workflow, we can achieve performances ranging from approximately 2 to 20 times faster than other widely used R packages for various functionalities. Availability and implementation rTASSEL is implemented in R using core TASSEL methods written in Java. The source code for rTASSEL can be found at https://bitbucket.org/bucklerlab/rtassel/src/master/. The source code for TASSEL can be found at https://bitbucket.org/tasseladmin/tassel-5-source/src/master/. 
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  2. Abstract

    The ability to accurately quantify the simultaneous effect of multiple genomic loci on multiple traits is now possible due to current and emerging high‐throughput genotyping and phenotyping technologies. To date, most efforts to quantify these genotype‐to‐phenotype relationships have focused on either multi‐trait models that test a single marker at a time or multi‐locus models that quantify associations with a single trait. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the performance of a multi‐trait, multi‐locus stepwise (MSTEP) model selection procedure we developed to (a) a commonly used multi‐trait single‐locus model and (b) a univariate multi‐locus model. We used real marker data in maize (Zea maysL.) and soybean (Glycine maxL.) to simulate multiple traits controlled by various combinations of pleiotropic and nonpleiotropic quantitative trait nucleotides (QTNs). In general, we found that both multi‐trait models outperformed the univariate multi‐locus model, especially when analyzing a trait of low heritability. For traits controlled by either a combination of pleiotropic and nonpleiotropic QTNs or a large number of QTNs (i.e., 50), our MSTEP model often outperformed at least one of the two alternative models. When applied to the analysis of two tocochromanol‐related traits in maize grain, MSTEP identified the same peak‐associated marker that has been reported in a previous study. We therefore conclude that MSTEP is a useful addition to the suite of statistical models that are commonly used to gain insight into the genetic architecture of agronomically important traits.

     
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  3. Very little is known about how domestication was constrained by the quantitative genetic architecture of crop progenitors and how quantitative genetic architecture was altered by domestication. Yang et al. [C. J. Yang et al. , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 116, 5643–5652 (2019)] drew multiple conclusions about how genetic architecture influenced and was altered by maize domestication based on one sympatric pair of teosinte and maize populations. To test the generality of their conclusions, we assayed the structure of genetic variances, genetic correlations among traits, strength of selection during domestication, and diversity in genetic architecture within teosinte and maize. Our results confirm that additive genetic variance is decreased, while dominance genetic variance is increased, during maize domestication. The genetic correlations are moderately conserved among traits between teosinte and maize, while the genetic variance–covariance matrices ( G -matrices) of teosinte and maize are quite different, primarily due to changes in the submatrix for reproductive traits. The inferred long-term selection intensities during domestication were weak, and the neutral hypothesis was rejected for reproductive and environmental response traits, suggesting that they were targets of selection during domestication. The G -matrix of teosinte imposed considerable constraint on selection during the early domestication process, and constraint increased further along the domestication trajectory. Finally, we assayed variation among populations and observed that genetic architecture is generally conserved among populations within teosinte and maize but is radically different between teosinte and maize. While selection drove changes in essentially all traits between teosinte and maize, selection explains little of the difference in domestication traits among populations within teosinte or maize. 
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  4. Walsh, Bruce (Ed.)
    Inbreeding depression is the reduction in fitness and vigor resulting from mating of close relatives observed in many plant and animal species. The extent to which the genetic load of mutations contributing to inbreeding depression is due to large-effect mutations versus variants with very small individual effects is unknown and may be affected by population history. We compared the effects of outcrossing and self-fertilization on 18 traits in a landrace population of maize, which underwent a population bottleneck during domestication, and a neighboring population of its wild relative teosinte. Inbreeding depression was greater in maize than teosinte for 15 of 18 traits, congruent with the greater segregating genetic load in the maize population that we predicted from sequence data. Parental breeding values were highly consistent between outcross and selfed offspring, indicating that additive effects determine most of the genetic value even in the presence of strong inbreeding depression. We developed a novel linkage scan to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) representing large-effect rare variants carried by only a single parent, which were more important in teosinte than maize. Teosinte also carried more putative juvenile-acting lethal variants identified by segregation distortion. These results suggest a mixture of mostly polygenic, small-effect partially recessive effects in linkage disequilibrium underlying inbreeding depression, with an additional contribution from rare larger-effect variants that was more important in teosinte but depleted in maize following the domestication bottleneck. Purging associated with the maize domestication bottleneck may have selected against some large effect variants, but polygenic load is harder to purge and overall segregating mutational burden increased in maize compared to teosinte. 
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  5. null (Ed.)
  6. The process of evolution under domestication has been studied using phylogenetics, population genetics–genomics, quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping, gene expression assays, and archaeology. Here, we apply an evolutionary quantitative genetic approach to understand the constraints imposed by the genetic architecture of trait variation in teosinte, the wild ancestor of maize, and the consequences of domestication on genetic architecture. Using modern teosinte and maize landrace populations as proxies for the ancestor and domesticate, respectively, we estimated heritabilities, additive and dominance genetic variances, genetic-by-environment variances, genetic correlations, and genetic covariances for 18 domestication-related traits using realized genomic relationships estimated from genome-wide markers. We found a reduction in heritabilities across most traits, and the reduction is stronger in reproductive traits (size and numbers of grains and ears) than vegetative traits. We observed larger depletion in additive genetic variance than dominance genetic variance. Selection intensities during domestication were weak for all traits, with reproductive traits showing the highest values. For 17 of 18 traits, neutral divergence is rejected, suggesting they were targets of selection during domestication. Yield (total grain weight) per plant is the sole trait that selection does not appear to have improved in maize relative to teosinte. From a multivariate evolution perspective, we identified a strong, nonneutral divergence between teosinte and maize landrace genetic variance–covariance matrices (G-matrices). While the structure of G-matrix in teosinte posed considerable genetic constraint on early domestication, the maize landrace G-matrix indicates that the degree of constraint is more unfavorable for further evolution along the same trajectory.

     
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