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  1. Abstract

    We present results of [Cii] 158μm emission line observations, and report the spectroscopic redshift confirmation of a strongly lensed (μ∼ 20) star-forming galaxy, MACS0308-zD1 atz= 6.2078 ± 0.0002. The [Cii] emission line is detected with a signal-to-noise ratio >6 within the rest-frame UV-bright clump of the lensed galaxy (zD1.1) and exhibits multiple velocity components; the narrow [Cii] has a velocity full width half maximum (FWHM) of 110 ± 20 km s−1, while broader [Cii] is seen with an FWHM of 230 ± 50 km s−1. The broader [Cii] component is blueshifted (−80 ± 20 km s−1) with respect to the narrow [Cii] component, and has a morphology that extends beyond the UV-bright clump. We find that, while the narrow [Cii] emission is most likely associated with zD1.1, the broader component is possibly associated with a physically distinct gas component from zD1.1 (e.g., outflowing or inflowing gas). Based on the nondetection ofλ158μmdust continuum, we find that MACS0308-zD1's star formation activity occurs in a dust-free environment indicated by a strong upper limit of infrared luminosity ≲9 × 108L. Targeting this strongly lensed faint galaxy for follow-up Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array and JWST observations will be crucial to characterize the details of typical galaxy growth in the early Universe.

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    The Reionization Cluster Survey imaged 41 galaxy clusters with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST), in order to detect lensed and high-redshift galaxies. Each cluster was imaged to about 26.5 AB mag in three optical and four near-infrared bands, taken in two distinct visits separated by varying time intervals. We make use of the multiple near-infrared epochs to search for transient sources in the cluster fields, with the primary motivation of building statistics for bright caustic crossing events in gravitational arcs. Over the whole sample, we do not find any significant (≳5σ) caustic crossing events, in line with expectations from semi-analytical calculations but in contrast to what may be naively expected from previous detections of some bright events or from deeper transient surveys that do find high rates of such events. Nevertheless, we find six prominent supernova (SN) candidates over the 41 fields: three of them were previously reported and three are new ones reported here for the first time. Out of the six candidates, four are likely core-collapse SNe – three in cluster galaxies, and among which only one was known before, and one slightly behind the cluster at z ∼ 0.6–0.7. The other two are likely Ia – both of them previously known, one probably in a cluster galaxy and one behind it at z ≃ 2. Our study supplies empirical bounds for the rate of caustic crossing events in galaxy cluster fields to typical HST magnitudes, and lays the groundwork for a future SN rate study.

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  3. Abstract

    We report the discovery of four galaxy candidates observed 450–600 Myr after the Big Bang with photometric redshifts betweenz∼ 8.3 and 10.2 measured using James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRCam imaging of the galaxy cluster WHL0137−08 observed in eight filters spanning 0.8–5.0μm, plus nine Hubble Space Telescope filters spanning 0.4–1.7μm. One candidate is gravitationally lensed with a magnification ofμ∼ 8, while the other three are located in a nearby NIRCam module with expected magnifications ofμ≲ 1.1. Using SED fitting, we estimate the stellar masses of these galaxies are typically in the rangelogM/M= 8.3–8.7. All appear young, with mass-weighted ages <240 Myr, low dust contentAV< 0.15 mag, and specific star formation rates sSFR ∼0.25–10 Gyr−1for most. Onez∼ 9 candidate is consistent with an age <5 Myr and an sSFR ∼10 Gyr−1, as inferred from a strong F444W excess, implying [Oiii]+Hβrest-frame equivalent width ∼2000 Å, although an olderz∼ 10 object is also allowed. Anotherz∼ 9 candidate is lensed into an arc 2.″4 long with a magnification ofμ∼ 8. This arc is the most spatially resolved galaxy atz∼ 9 known to date, revealing structures ∼30 pc across. Follow-up spectroscopy of WHL0137−08 with JWST/NIRSpec will be useful to spectroscopically confirm these high-redshift galaxy candidates and to study their physical properties in more detail.

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    We report the discovery of a triply imaged active galactic nucleus (AGN), lensed by the galaxy cluster MACS J0035.4−2015 (zd = 0.352). The object is detected in Hubble Space Telescope imaging taken for the RELICS program. It appears to have a quasi-stellar nucleus consistent with a point-source, with a de-magnified radius of re ≲ 100 pc. The object is spectroscopically confirmed to be an AGN at zspec = 2.063 ± 0.005 showing broad rest-frame UV emission lines, and detected in both X-ray observations with Chandra and in ALCS ALMA band 6 (1.2 mm) imaging. It has a relatively faint rest-frame UV luminosity for a quasar-like object, MUV, 1450 = −19.7 ± 0.2. The object adds to just a few quasars or other X-ray sources known to be multiply lensed by a galaxy cluster. Some diffuse emission from the host galaxy is faintly seen around the nucleus, and there is a faint object nearby sharing the same multiple-imaging symmetry and geometric redshift, possibly an interacting galaxy or a star-forming knot in the host. We present an accompanying lens model, calculate the magnifications and time delays, and infer the physical properties of the source. We find the rest-frame UV continuum and emission lines to be dominated by the AGN, and the optical emission to be dominated by the host galaxy of modest stellar mass $M_{\star }\simeq 10^{9.2}\, \mathrm{M}_{\odot }$ . We also observe some variation in the AGN emission with time, which may suggest that the AGN used to be more active. This object adds a low-redshift counterpart to several relatively faint AGN recently uncovered at high redshifts with HST and JWST.

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  5. Abstract

    We report the discovery of two extremely magnified lensed star candidates behind the galaxy cluster MACS J0647.7+015 using recent multiband James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) NIRCam observations. The star candidates are seen in a previously known,zphot≃ 4.8 dropout giant arc that straddles the critical curve. The candidates lie near the expected critical curve position, but lack clear counter-images on the other side of it, suggesting these are possibly stars undergoing caustic crossings. We present revised lensing models for the cluster, including multiply imaged galaxies newly identified in the JWST data, and use them to estimate background macro-magnifications of at least ≳90 and ≳50 at the positions of the two candidates, respectively. With these values, we expect effective, caustic-crossing magnifications of ∼[103–105] for the two star candidates. The spectral energy distributions of the two candidates match well the spectra of B-type stars with best-fit surface temperatures of ∼10,000 K, and ∼12,000 K, respectively, and we show that such stars with masses ≳20Mand ≳50M, respectively, can become sufficiently magnified to be observable. We briefly discuss other alternative explanations and conclude that these objects are likely lensed stars, but also acknowledge that the less-magnified candidate may alternatively reside in a star cluster. These star candidates constitute the second highest-redshift examples to date after Earendel atzphot≃ 6.2, establishing further the potential of studying extremely magnified stars at high redshifts with JWST. Planned future observations, including with NIRSpec, will enable a more detailed view of these candidates in the near future.

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  6. null (Ed.)
  7. Abstract We give an overview and describe the rationale, methods, and first results from NIRCam images of the JWST “Prime Extragalactic Areas for Reionization and Lensing Science” (PEARLS) project. PEARLS uses up to eight NIRCam filters to survey several prime extragalactic survey areas: two fields at the North Ecliptic Pole (NEP); seven gravitationally lensing clusters; two high redshift protoclusters; and the iconic backlit VV 191 galaxy system to map its dust attenuation. PEARLS also includes NIRISS spectra for one of the NEP fields and NIRSpec spectra of two high-redshift quasars. The main goal of PEARLS is to study the epoch of galaxy assembly, active galactic nucleus (AGN) growth, and First Light. Five fields—the JWST NEP Time-Domain Field (TDF), IRAC Dark Field, and three lensing clusters—will be observed in up to four epochs over a year. The cadence and sensitivity of the imaging data are ideally suited to find faint variable objects such as weak AGN, high-redshift supernovae, and cluster caustic transits. Both NEP fields have sightlines through our Galaxy, providing significant numbers of very faint brown dwarfs whose proper motions can be studied. Observations from the first spoke in the NEP TDF are public. This paper presents our first PEARLS observations, their NIRCam data reduction and analysis, our first object catalogs, the 0.9–4.5 μ m galaxy counts and Integrated Galaxy Light. We assess the JWST sky brightness in 13 NIRCam filters, yielding our first constraints to diffuse light at 0.9–4.5 μ m. PEARLS is designed to be of lasting benefit to the community. 
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