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  1. Abstract

    This work demonstrates the dominance of a Ni(0/II/III) cycle for Ni‐photoredox amide arylation, which contrasts with other Ni‐photoredox C‐heteroatom couplings that operate via Ni(I/III) self‐sustained cycles. The kinetic data gathered when using different Ni precatalysts supports an initial Ni(0)‐mediated oxidative addition into the aryl bromide. Using NiCl2as the precatalyst resulted in an observable induction period, which was found to arise from a photochemical activation event to generate Ni(0) and to be prolonged by unproductive comproportionation between the Ni(II) precatalyst and the in situ generated Ni(0) active species. Ligand exchange after oxidative addition yields a Ni(II) aryl amido complex, which was identified as the catalyst resting state for the reaction. Stoichiometric experiments showed that oxidation of this Ni(II) aryl amido intermediate was required to yield functionalized amide products. The kinetic data presented supports a rate‐limiting photochemically‐mediated Ni(II/III) oxidation to enable C−N reductive elimination. An alternative Ni(I/III) self‐sustained manifold was discarded based on EPR and kinetic measurements. The mechanistic insights uncovered herein will inform the community on how subtle changes in Ni‐photoredox reaction conditions may impact the reaction pathway, and have enabled us to include aryl chlorides as coupling partners and to reduce the Ni loading by 20‐fold without any reactivity loss.

     
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  2. Abstract

    This work demonstrates the dominance of a Ni(0/II/III) cycle for Ni‐photoredox amide arylation, which contrasts with other Ni‐photoredox C‐heteroatom couplings that operate via Ni(I/III) self‐sustained cycles. The kinetic data gathered when using different Ni precatalysts supports an initial Ni(0)‐mediated oxidative addition into the aryl bromide. Using NiCl2as the precatalyst resulted in an observable induction period, which was found to arise from a photochemical activation event to generate Ni(0) and to be prolonged by unproductive comproportionation between the Ni(II) precatalyst and the in situ generated Ni(0) active species. Ligand exchange after oxidative addition yields a Ni(II) aryl amido complex, which was identified as the catalyst resting state for the reaction. Stoichiometric experiments showed that oxidation of this Ni(II) aryl amido intermediate was required to yield functionalized amide products. The kinetic data presented supports a rate‐limiting photochemically‐mediated Ni(II/III) oxidation to enable C−N reductive elimination. An alternative Ni(I/III) self‐sustained manifold was discarded based on EPR and kinetic measurements. The mechanistic insights uncovered herein will inform the community on how subtle changes in Ni‐photoredox reaction conditions may impact the reaction pathway, and have enabled us to include aryl chlorides as coupling partners and to reduce the Ni loading by 20‐fold without any reactivity loss.

     
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  3. Abstract

    Specimens of the Peromyscus boylii species group distributed in the western and northeastern montane regions of Michoacán, México, historically have been assigned to P. levipes. Previous studies indicated that these specimens possessed mitochondrial DNA haplotypes that were distinct from both P. levipes and P. kilpatricki, a recently named species in the P. boylii species group from northeastern Michoacán and western Morelos. Herein karyotypic, DNA sequence, and morphological data were analyzed from those populations to evaluate their taxonomic affinity. Karyotypic data indicated that individuals from western Michoacán (Dos Aguas and Aguililla) and from a newly discovered population in northeastern Michoacán (Zinapécuaro) were chromosomally similar to P. carletoni (FN = 68) but distinct from other taxa assigned to the P. boylii species group. Analyses of cranial characteristics indicated that, relative to other species in the P. boylii species group, two morphologically distinct groups were present that corresponded to the Dos Aguas/Aguililla and Zinapécuaro populations, respectively. The latter population, although represented by a small sample size (n = 5 specimens), appeared to exhibit some trenchant morphological distinctions compared with other cryptic species in the P. boylii group. Phylogenetic analyses (parsimony, Bayesian, and likelihood) of DNA sequences obtained from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene indicated that although the individuals from Dos Aguas/Aguililla and Zinapécuaro formed a sister group relationship, they formed monophyletic clades that differed genetically (2.54%)—a level approaching that seen between other sister species of Peromyscus. Further, the Dos Aguas/Aguililla and Zinapécuaro clade was more closely aligned with a clade containing representatives of P. carletoni and P. levipes instead of with those from closer geographic proximities (P. kilpatricki) located in eastern Michoacán. Together, these results indicated that these two populations seemingly represent two undescribed species in the P. boylii species group for which we propose the names Peromyscus greenbaumi for populations in western Michoacán (circa Dos Aguas and Aguililla) and Peromyscus ensinki for populations in northeastern Michoacán (circa Zinapécuaro).

     
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