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  1. Industrial control systems (ICS) include systems that control industrial processes in critical infrastructure such as electric grids, nuclear power plants, manufacturing plans, water treatment systems, pharmaceutical plants, and building automation systems. ICS represent complex systems that contain an abundance of unique devices all of which may hold different types of software, including applications, firmware and operating systems. Due to their ability to control physical infrastructure, ICS have more and more become targets of cyber-attacks, increasing the risk of serious damage, negative financial impact, disruption to business operations, disruption to communities, and even the loss of life. Ethical hacking represents one way to test the security of ICS. Ethical hacking consists of using a cyber-attacker's perspective and a variety of cybersecurity tools to actively discover vulnerabilities and entry points for potential cyber-attacks. However, ICS ethical hacking represents a difficult task due to the wide variety of devices found on ICS networks. Most ethical hackers do not hold expertise or knowledge about ICS hardware, device computing elements, protocols, vulnerabilities found on these elements, and exploits used to exploit these vulnerabilities. Effective approaches are needed to reduce the complexity of ICS ethical hacking tasks. In this study, we use ontology modeling, a knowledgemore »representation approach in artificial intelligence (AI), to model data that represent ethical hacking tasks of building automation systems. With ontology modeling, information is stored and represented in the form of semantic graphs that express individuals, their properties, and the relations between multiple individuals. Data are drawn from sources such as the National Vulnerability Database, ExploitDB, Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE), the Common Attack Pattern and Enumeration Classification (CAPEC), and others. We show, through semantic queries, how the ontology model can automatically link together entities such as software names and versions of ICS software, vulnerabilities found on those software instances, vulnerabilities found on the protocols used by the software, exploits found on those vulnerabilities, weaknesses that represent those vulnerabilities, and attacks that can exploit those weaknesses. The ontology modeling of ICS ethical hacking and the semantic queries run over the model can reduce the complexity of ICS hacking tasks.« less