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  1. Electrochemical energy storage is a cost-effective, sustainable method for storing and delivering energy gener- ated from renewable resources. Among electrochemical energy storage devices, the lithium-ion battery (LIB) has dominated due to its high energy and power density. The success of LIBs has generated increased interest in sodium-ion battery (NaB) technology amid concerns of the sustainability and cost of lithium resources. In recent years, numerous studies have shown that sodium-ion solid-state electrolytes (NaSEs) have considerable potential to enable new cell chemistries that can deliver superior electrochemical performance to liquid-electrolyte-based NaBs. However, their commercial implementation is hindered by slow ionic transport at ambient and chemical/ mechanical incompatibility at interfaces. In this review, various NaSEs are first characterized based on individual crystal structures and ionic conduction mechanisms. Subsequently, selected methods of modifying interfaces in sodium solid-state batteries (NaSSBs) are covered, including anode wetting, ionic liquid (IL) addition, and composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs). Finally, examples are provided of how these techniques improve cycle life and rate performance of different cathode materials including sulfur, oxide, hexacyanoferrate, and phosphate-type. A focus on interfacial modification and optimization is crucial for realizing next-generation batteries. Thus, the novel methods reviewed here could pave the way toward a NaSSB capablemore »of with- standing the high current and cycle life demands of future applications.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 16, 2023
  2. Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) has received considerable interest as an alternate anode material for high power density batteries for large scale applications. However, LTO suffers from poor Li+ diffusivity and poor electronic conductivity, resulting in capacity loss and poor rate performance. Here we demonstrate a facile synthesis of LTO NPs using liquid-feed flame spray pyrolysis (LF-FSP) which provides high surface area (∼38 m2/g) spinel structure LTO NPs with average particle sizes (APSs) of 45 ± 0.3 nm. Pristine LTO-Li half-cells exhibit reversible capacity of 70 mAh/g at 10 C. In this study, we show that mixing LiAlO2 NPs (5 wt %) and Li6SiON polymer precursor (10 wt %) with pristine LTO via ball-milling and ultrasonication followed by tape casting enhances the LTO rate performance providing reversible capacity of ∼217 mAh/g at 5 C over 500 cycles. The Li6SiON polymer electrolyte is synthesized from rice hull ash (RHA), an agricultural waste, providing a green synthetic approach to electrode coating materials. CV and EIS studies indicate that adding the solid and polymer electrolytes reduces charge-transfer resistance and electrode polarization, enhancing both reversibility and the LTO Li+ diffusion coefficient from 4.6 × 10−14 to 2.7 × 10−12 cm2/s.