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  1. Abstract

    We revisit the Hipparcos 2007 re-reduction and find improvements to the catalogue by leveraging Gaia EDR3. We show that including a constant residual offset and additional dispersion (two free parameters in total) in the Hipparcos 2007 Intermediate Astrometric Data (IAD) creates a new catalogue with significantly better agreement with Gaia EDR3. The astrometric parameters, after recalibration, have z-scores that follow a unit-Gaussian when measured against Gaia EDR3 values. We have expanded the python astrometry tool, htof, to recalibrate the IAD on-the-fly. On a second front, we find that a merged set of IAD from the 1997 and 2007 Hipparcos reductions is not possible in an internally consistent manner. This can be understood if Hipparcos 2007 is an improved, but overfit, model to the underlying along-scan data. For this reason, we recommend using the recalibrated Hipparcos 2007 astrometric parameters, or those from the Hipparcos–Gaia Catalogue of Accelerations – because the signatures of overfitting are calibrated out. We advise caution in fitting orbits to the IAD from either Hipparcos 2 as-published or the recalibrated version presented here.

     
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  2. Abstract We describe the discovery of a solar neighborhood ( d = 468 pc) binary system with a main-sequence sunlike star and a massive noninteracting black hole candidate. The spectral energy distribution of the visible star is described by a single stellar model. We derive stellar parameters from a high signal-to-noise Magellan/MIKE spectrum, classifying the star as a main-sequence star with T eff = 5972 K, log g = 4.54 , and M = 0.91 M ⊙ . The spectrum shows no indication of a second luminous component. To determine the spectroscopic orbit of the binary, we measured the radial velocities of this system with the Automated Planet Finder, Magellan, and Keck over four months. We show that the velocity data are consistent with the Gaia astrometric orbit and provide independent evidence for a massive dark companion. From a combined fit of our spectroscopic data and the astrometry, we derive a companion mass of 11.39 − 1.31 + 1.51 M ⊙ . We conclude that this binary system harbors a massive black hole on an eccentric ( e = 0.46 ± 0.02), 185.4 ± 0.1 day orbit. These conclusions are independent of El-Badry et al., who recently reported the discovery of the same system. A joint fit to all available data yields a comparable period solution but a lower companion mass of 9.32 − 0.21 + 0.22 M ⊙ . Radial velocity fits to all available data produce a unimodal solution for the period that is not possible with either data set alone. The combination of both data sets yields the most accurate orbit currently available. 
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  3. ABSTRACT

    Brown dwarfs with well-measured masses, ages, and luminosities provide direct benchmark tests of substellar formation and evolutionary models. We report the first results from a direct imaging survey aiming to find and characterize substellar companions to nearby accelerating stars with the assistance of the Hipparcos–Gaia Catalog of Accelerations (HGCA). In this paper, we present a joint high-contrast imaging and astrometric discovery of a substellar companion to HD 176535 A, a K3.5V main-sequence star aged approximately $3.59_{-1.15}^{+0.87}$ Gyr at a distance of 36.99 ± 0.03 pc. In advance of our high-contrast imaging observations, we combined precision High Accuracy Radial velocity Planet Searcher (HARPS) Radial Velocities (RVs) and HGCA astrometry to predict the potential companion’s location and mass. We thereafter acquired two nights of KeckAO/NIRC2 direct imaging observations in the L′ band, which revealed a companion with a contrast of $\Delta L^{\prime }_p = 9.20\pm 0.06$ mag at a projected separation of ≈0.35 arcsec (≈13 au) from the host star. We revise our orbital fit by incorporating our dual-epoch relative astrometry using the open-source Markov chain Monte Carlo orbit fitting code orvara. We obtain a dynamical mass of $65.9_{-1.7}^{+2.0} M_{\rm Jup}$ that places HD 176535 B firmly in the brown dwarf regime. HD 176535 B is a new benchmark dwarf useful for constraining the evolutionary and atmospheric models of high-mass brown dwarfs. We found a luminosity of $\rm log(\mathit{ L}_{bol}/L_{\odot }) = -5.26\pm 0.07$ and a model-dependent effective temperature of 980 ± 35 K for HD 176535 B. We infer HD 176535 B to be a T dwarf from its mass, age, and luminosity. Our dynamical mass suggests that some substellar evolutionary models may be underestimating luminosity for high-mass T dwarfs. Given its angular separation and luminosity, HD 176535 B would make a promising candidate for Aperture Masking Interferometry with JWST and GRAVITY/Keck Planet Imager and Characterizer, and further spectroscopic characterization with instruments like the CHARIS/SCExAO/Subaru integral field spectrograph.

     
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  4. Abstract

    We present the direct-imaging discovery of a giant planet orbiting the young star AF Lep, a 1.2Mmember of the 24 ± 3 MyrβPic moving group. AF Lep was observed as part of our ongoing high-contrast imaging program targeting stars with astrometric accelerations between Hipparcos and Gaia that indicate the presence of substellar companions. Keck/NIRC2 observations inLwith the vector vortex coronagraph reveal a point source, AF Lep b, at ≈340 mas, which exhibits orbital motion at the 6σlevel over the course of 13 months. A joint orbit fit yields precise constraints on the planet’s dynamical mass of3.20.6+0.7MJup, semimajor axis of8.41.3+1.1au, and eccentricity of0.240.15+0.27. AF Lep hosts a debris disk located at ∼50 au, but it is unlikely to be sculpted by AF Lep b, implying there may be additional planets in the system at wider separations. The stellar inclination (i*=549+11°) and orbital inclination (io=5012+9°) are in good agreement, which is consistent with the system having spin–orbit alignment. AF Lep b is the lowest-mass imaged planet with a dynamical mass measurement and highlights the promise of using astrometric accelerations as a tool to find and characterize long-period planets.

     
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  5. ABSTRACT

    51 Eri b is one of the only young planets consistent with a wide range of possible initial entropy states, including the cold-start scenario associated with some models of planet formation by core accretion. The most direct way to constrain the initial entropy of a planet is by measuring its luminosity and mass at a sufficiently young age that the initial conditions still matter. We present the tightest upper limit on 51 Eri b’s mass yet (M < 11 MJup at 2σ) using a cross-calibration of Hipparcos and Gaia  EDR3 astrometry and the orbit-fitting code orvara. We also reassess its luminosity using a direct, photometric approach, finding $\log (\rm{L_{\rm bol}}/\rm{\mathrm{L}_{\odot }}) = -5.5\pm 0.2$ dex. Combining this luminosity with the 24 ± 3 Myr age of the β Pic moving group, of which 51 Eri is a member, we derive mass distributions from a grid of evolutionary models that spans a wide range of initial entropies. We find that 51 Eri b is inconsistent with the coldest-start scenarios, requiring an initial entropy of >8 kB baryon−1 at 97 per cent confidence. This result represents the first observational constraint on the initial entropy of a potentially cold-start planet, and it continues the trend of dynamical masses for directly imaged planets pointing to warm- or hot-start formation scenarios.

     
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  6. Abstract

    We present the latest and most precise characterization of the architecture for the ancient (≈11 Gyr) Kepler-444 system, which is composed of a K0 primary star (Kepler-444 A) hosting five transiting planets and a tight M-type spectroscopic binary (Kepler-444 BC) with an A–BC projected separation of 66 au. We have measured the system’s relative astrometry using the adaptive optics imaging from Keck/NIRC2 and Kepler-444 A’s radial velocities from the Hobby-Eberly Telescope and reanalyzed relative radial velocities between BC and A from Keck/HIRES. We also include the Hipparcos-Gaia astrometric acceleration and all published astrometry and radial velocities in an updated orbit analysis of BC’s barycenter. These data greatly extend the time baseline of the monitoring and lead to significant updates to BC’s barycentric orbit compared to previous work, including a larger semimajor axis (a=52.22.7+3.3au), a smaller eccentricity (e= 0.55 ± 0.05), and a more precise inclination (i=85404+03). We have also derived the first dynamical masses of B and C components. Our results suggest that Kepler-444 A’s protoplanetary disk was likely truncated by BC to a radius of ≈8 au, which resolves the previously noticed tension between Kepler-444 A’s disk mass and planet masses. Kepler-444 BC’s barycentric orbit is likely aligned with those of A’s five planets, which might be primordial or a consequence of dynamical evolution. The Kepler-444 system demonstrates that compact multiplanet systems residing in hierarchical stellar triples can form at early epochs of the universe and survive their secular evolution throughout cosmic time.

     
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  7. Abstract We present orbits for 24 binaries in the field of open cluster NGC 2516 (∼150 Myr) and 13 binaries in the field of open cluster NGC 2422 (∼130 Myr) using results from a multiyear radial-velocity (RV) survey of the cluster cores. Six of these systems are double-lined spectroscopic binaries. We fit these RV variable systems with orvara , a MCMC-based fitting program that models Keplerian orbits. We use precise stellar parallaxes and proper motions from Gaia EDR3 to determine cluster membership. We impose a barycentric RV prior on all cluster members; this significantly improves our orbital constraints. Two of our systems have periods between five and 15 days, the critical window in which tides efficiently damp orbital eccentricity. These binaries should be included in future analyses of circularization across similarly-aged clusters. We also find a relatively flat distribution of binary mass ratios, consistent with previous work. With the inclusion of TESS light curves for all available targets, we identity target 378–036252 as a new eclipsing binary. We also identify a field star whose secondary has a mass in the brown dwarf range, as well as two cluster members whose RVs suggest the presence of an additional companion. Our orbital fits will help constrain the binary fraction and binary properties across stellar age and across stellar environment. 
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  8. Abstract

    Model-independent masses of substellar companions are critical tools to validate models of planet and brown dwarf cooling, test their input physics, and determine the formation and evolution of these objects. In this work, we measure the dynamical mass and orbit of the young substellar companion HD 984 B. We obtained new high-contrast imaging of the HD 984 system with Keck/NIRC2 that expands the baseline of relative astrometry from 3 to 8 yr. We also present new radial velocities of the host star with the Habitable-Zone Planet Finder spectrograph at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope. Furthermore, HD 984 exhibits a significant proper motion difference between Hipparcos and Gaia EDR3. Our joint orbit fit of the relative astrometry, proper motions, and radial velocities yields a dynamical mass of 61 ± 4MJupfor HD 984 B, placing the companion firmly in the brown dwarf regime. The new fit also reveals a higher eccentricity for the companion (e= 0.76 ± 0.05) compared to previous orbit fits. Given the broad age constraint for HD 984, this mass is consistent with predictions from evolutionary models. HD 984 B’s dynamical mass places it among a small but growing list of giant planet and brown dwarf companions with direct mass measurements.

     
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  9. Abstract

    Benchmark brown dwarf companions with well-determined ages and model-independent masses are powerful tools to test substellar evolutionary models and probe the formation of giant planets and brown dwarfs. Here, we report the independent discovery of HIP 21152 B, the first imaged brown dwarf companion in the Hyades, and conduct a comprehensive orbital and atmospheric characterization of the system. HIP 21152 was targeted in an ongoing high-contrast imaging campaign of stars exhibiting proper-motion changes between Hipparcos and Gaia, and was also recently identified by Bonavita et al. (2022) and Kuzuhara et al. (2022). Our Keck/NIRC2 and SCExAO/CHARIS imaging of HIP 21152 revealed a comoving companion at a separation of 0.″37 (16 au). We perform a joint orbit fit of all available relative astrometry and radial velocities together with the Hipparcos-Gaia proper motions, yielding a dynamical mass of244+6MJup, which is 1–2σlower than evolutionary model predictions. Hybrid grids that include the evolution of cloud properties best reproduce the dynamical mass. We also identify a comoving wide-separation (1837″ or 7.9 × 104au) early-L dwarf with an inferred mass near the hydrogen-burning limit. Finally, we analyze the spectra and photometry of HIP 21152 B using the Saumon & Marley (2008) atmospheric models and a suite of retrievals. The best-fit grid-based models havefsed= 2, indicating the presence of clouds,Teff= 1400 K, andlogg=4.5dex. These results are consistent with the object’s spectral type of T0 ± 1. As the first benchmark brown dwarf companion in the Hyades, HIP 21152 B joins the small but growing number of substellar companions with well-determined ages and dynamical masses.

     
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  10. Abstract

    We present the direct imaging discovery of a low-mass companion to the nearby accelerating F star, HIP 5319, using SCExAO coupled with the CHARIS, VAMPIRES, and MEC instruments in addition to Keck/NIRC2 imaging. CHARISJHK(1.1–2.4μm) spectroscopic data combined with VAMPIRES 750 nm, MECY, and NIRC2Lpphotometry is best matched by an M3–M7 object with an effective temperature ofT= 3200 K and surface gravity log(g) = 5.5. Using the relative astrometry for HIP 5319 B from CHARIS and NIRC2, and absolute astrometry for the primary from Gaia and Hipparcos, and adopting a log-normal prior assumption for the companion mass, we measure a dynamical mass for HIP 5319 B of3111+35MJ, a semimajor axis of18.64.1+10au, an inclination of69.415+5.6degrees, and an eccentricity of0.420.29+0.39. However, using an alternate prior for our dynamical model yields a much higher mass of12888+127MJ. Using data taken with the LCOGT NRES instrument we also show that the primary HIP 5319 A is a single star in contrast to previous characterizations of the system as a spectroscopic binary. This work underscores the importance of assumed priors in dynamical models for companions detected with imaging and astrometry, and the need to have an updated inventory of system measurements.

     
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