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    Driven by the imminent need to rapidly process and classify millions of AGN spectra drawn from next generation astronomical facilities, we present a spectral fitting routine for Type 2 AGN spectra optimized for high volume processing, using the quasar spectral fitting library (qsfit). We analyse an optically selected sample of 813 luminous Type 2 AGN spectra at z < 0.83 from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to qualify its performance. We report a median narrow line H α/H β Balmer decrement of 4.5 ± 0.8, alluding to the presence of dust in the narrow line region (NLR). We publish a specialized qsfit fitting routine for high signal-to-noise ratio spectra and general fitting routine for double peaked Type 2 AGN spectra applied on a subsample of 45 spectra from our parent sample. We report a median red and blue peak velocity separation of 390 ± 60 kms−1. No trend is found for red or blue peaks to exhibit systematically different luminosity or ionization properties. Emission line diagnostics show that the double peaks in all sources are illuminated by an AGN-powered ionizing continuum. Finally, we examine the morphology of host galaxies of our double peaked sample. We find double peaked Type 2 AGN reside in merging systems at a comparable frequency to single peaked AGN. This suggests that the double peaked AGN phenomenon is likely to have a bi-conical outflow origin in the majority of cases. We publicly release the code used for spectral analysis and produced catalogues used in this work.

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    We derive the evolution of the ultraviolet upturn colour from a sample of field luminous red galaxies at 0.3 < z < 0.7 with −24 < Mr < −21.5. No individual objects are securely detected, so we stack several hundred galaxies within absolute magnitude and redshift intervals. We find that the colour of the ultraviolet upturn (in observed NUV − i which is approximately equivalent to the classical FUV − V at the redshifts of our targets) does not change strongly with redshift to z = 0.7. This behaviour is similar to that observed in cluster ellipticals over this same mass range and at similar redshifts, and we speculate that the processes involved in the origin of the UV upturn are the same. The observations are most consistent with spectral synthesis models containing a fraction of a helium rich stellar population with abundances between 37 per cent and 42 per cent, although we cannot formally exclude a contribution due to residual star formation at the $\sim 0.5\, \mathrm{ per\,cent}$ level (however, this appears unlikely for cluster galaxies that are believed to be more quenched). This suggests that the ultraviolet upturn is a primordial characteristic of early-type galaxies at all redshifts and that an unexpected nucleosynthesis channel may lead to nearly complete chemical evolution at early times.

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    GRB 230812B is a bright and relatively nearby (z = 0.36) long gamma-ray burst (GRB) that has generated significant interest in the community and has thus been observed over the entire electromagnetic spectrum. We report over 80 observations in X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, infrared, and submillimetre bands from the GRANDMA (Global Rapid Advanced Network for Multimessenger Addicts) network of observatories and from observational partners. Adding complementary data from the literature, we then derive essential physical parameters associated with the ejecta and external properties (i.e. the geometry and environment) of the GRB and compare with other analyses of this event. We spectroscopically confirm the presence of an associated supernova, SN2023pel, and we derive a photospheric expansion velocity of v ∼ 17 × 103 km s−1. We analyse the photometric data first using empirical fits of the flux and then with full Bayesian inference. We again strongly establish the presence of a supernova in the data, with a maximum (pseudo-)bolometric luminosity of 5.75 × 1042 erg s−1, at $15.76^{+0.81}_{-1.21}$ d (in the observer frame) after the trigger, with a half-max time width of 22.0 d. We compare these values with those of SN1998bw, SN2006aj, and SN2013dx. Our best-fitting model favours a very low density environment ($\log _{10}({n_{\rm ISM}/{\rm cm}^{-3}}) = -2.38^{+1.45}_{-1.60}$) and small values for the jet’s core angle $\theta _{\rm core} = 1.54^{+1.02}_{-0.81} \ \rm {deg}$ and viewing angle $\theta _{\rm obs} = 0.76^{+1.29}_{-0.76} \ \rm {deg}$. GRB 230812B is thus one of the best observed afterglows with a distinctive supernova bump.

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  4. Abstract We present James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the afterglow of GRB 221009A, the brightest gamma-ray burst (GRB) ever observed. This includes the first mid-IR spectra of any GRB, obtained with JWST/Near Infrared Spectrograph (0.6–5.5 micron) and Mid-Infrared Instrument (5–12 micron), 12 days after the burst. Assuming that the intrinsic spectral slope is a single power law, with F ν ∝ ν − β , we obtain β ≈ 0.35, modified by substantial dust extinction with A V = 4.9. This suggests extinction above the notional Galactic value, possibly due to patchy extinction within the Milky Way or dust in the GRB host galaxy. It further implies that the X-ray and optical/IR regimes are not on the same segment of the synchrotron spectrum of the afterglow. If the cooling break lies between the X-ray and optical/IR, then the temporal decay rates would only match a post-jet-break model, with electron index p < 2, and with the jet expanding into a uniform ISM medium. The shape of the JWST spectrum is near-identical in the optical/near-IR to X-SHOOTER spectroscopy obtained at 0.5 days and to later time observations with HST. The lack of spectral evolution suggests that any accompanying supernova (SN) is either substantially fainter or bluer than SN 1998bw, the proto-type GRB-SN. Our HST observations also reveal a disk-like host galaxy, viewed close to edge-on, that further complicates the isolation of any SN component. The host galaxy appears rather typical among long-GRB hosts and suggests that the extreme properties of GRB 221009A are not directly tied to its galaxy-scale environment. 
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  5. Context.3C 84 is a nearby radio source with a complex total intensity structure, showing linear polarisation and spectral patterns. A detailed investigation of the central engine region necessitates the use of very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) above the hitherto available maximum frequency of 86 GHz.

    Aims.Using ultrahigh resolution VLBI observations at the currently highest available frequency of 228 GHz, we aim to perform a direct detection of compact structures and understand the physical conditions in the compact region of 3C 84.

    Methods.We used Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) 228 GHz observations and, given the limited (u, v)-coverage, applied geometric model fitting to the data. Furthermore, we employed quasi-simultaneously observed, ancillary multi-frequency VLBI data for the source in order to carry out a comprehensive analysis of the core structure.

    Results.We report the detection of a highly ordered, strong magnetic field around the central, supermassive black hole of 3C 84. The brightness temperature analysis suggests that the system is in equipartition. We also determined a turnover frequency ofνm = (113 ± 4) GHz, a corresponding synchrotron self-absorbed magnetic field ofBSSA = (2.9 ± 1.6) G, and an equipartition magnetic field ofBeq = (5.2 ± 0.6) G. Three components are resolved with the highest fractional polarisation detected for this object (mnet = (17.0 ± 3.9)%). The positions of the components are compatible with those seen in low-frequency VLBI observations since 2017–2018. We report a steeply negative slope of the spectrum at 228 GHz. We used these findings to test existing models of jet formation, propagation, and Faraday rotation in 3C 84.

    Conclusions.The findings of our investigation into different flow geometries and black hole spins support an advection-dominated accretion flow in a magnetically arrested state around a rapidly rotating supermassive black hole as a model of the jet-launching system in the core of 3C 84. However, systematic uncertainties due to the limited (u, v)-coverage, however, cannot be ignored. Our upcoming work using new EHT data, which offer full imaging capabilities, will shed more light on the compact region of 3C 84.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 1, 2025
  6. ABSTRACT We present Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array observations of the brightest cluster galaxy Hydra-A, a nearby (z = 0.054) giant elliptical galaxy with powerful and extended radio jets. The observations reveal CO(1−0), CO(2–1), 13CO(2–1), CN(2–1), SiO(5–4), HCO+(1–0), HCO+(2–1), HCN(1–0), HCN(2–1), HNC(1–0), and H2CO(3–2) absorption lines against the galaxy’s bright and compact active galactic nucleus. These absorption features are due to at least 12 individual molecular clouds that lie close to the centre of the galaxy and have velocities of approximately −50 to +10 km s−1 relative to its recession velocity, where positive values correspond to inward motion. The absorption profiles are evidence of a clumpy interstellar medium within brightest cluster galaxies composed of clouds with similar column densities, velocity dispersions, and excitation temperatures to those found at radii of several kpc in the Milky Way. We also show potential variation in a ∼10 km s−1 wide section of the absorption profile over a 2 yr time-scale, most likely caused by relativistic motions in the hot spots of the continuum source that change the background illumination of the absorbing clouds. 
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  7. ABSTRACT We measure the 850-μm source densities of 46 candidate protoclusters selected from the Planck high-z catalogue (PHz) and the Planck Catalogue of Compact Sources (PCCS) that were followed up with Herschel-SPIRE and SCUBA-2. This paper aims to search for overdensities of 850-μm sources in order to select the fields that are most likely to be genuine protoclusters. Of the 46 candidate protoclusters, 25 have significant overdensities (>5 times the field counts), 11 have intermediate overdensities (3–5 times the field counts), and 10 have no overdensity (<3 times the field counts) of 850-μm sources. We find that the enhanced number densities are unlikely to be the result of sample variance. Compared with the number counts of another sample selected from Planck’s compact source catalogues, this [PHz + PCCS]-selected sample has a higher fraction of candidate protoclusters with significant overdensities, though both samples show overdensities of 850-μm sources above intermediate level. Based on the estimated star formation rate densities (SFRDs), we suggest that both samples can efficiently select protoclusters with starbursting galaxies near the redshift at which the global field SFRD peaks (2 < z < 3). Based on the confirmation of overdensities found here, future follow-up observations on other PHz targets may greatly increase the number of genuine dusty star-forming galaxy-rich clusters/protoclusters. 
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