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    We present the deconvolved distribution estimator (DDE), an extension of the voxel intensity distribution (VID), in the context of future observations proposed as part of the CO Mapping Array Project (COMAP). The DDE exploits the fact that the observed VID is a convolution of correlated signal intensity distributions and uncorrelated noise or interloper intensity distributions. By deconvolving the individual VID of two observables away from their joint VID in a Fourier-space operation, the DDE suppresses sensitivity to interloper emission while maintaining sensitivity to correlated components. The DDE thus improves upon the VID by reducing the relative influence of uncorrelated noise and interloper biases, which is useful in the context of COMAP observations that observe different rotational transitions of CO from the same comoving volume in different observing frequency bands. Fisher forecasts suggest that the theoretical sensitivity in the DDE allows significant improvements in constraining power compared to either the cross power spectrum or the individual VID data, and matches the constraining power of the combination of all other one- and two-point summary statistics. Future work should further investigate the covariance and model-dependent behaviour of this novel one-point cross-correlation statistic.


    The EXperiment for Cryogenic Large-Aperture Intensity Mapping (EXCLAIM) is a balloon-borne cryogenic telescope that will survey the spectrum of diffuse emission from both the Milky Way and the cosmic web to probe star formation, the interstellar medium, and galaxy evolution across cosmic time. EXCLAIM’s primary extragalactic science survey maps 305 deg2 along the celestial equator with an R = 512 spectrometer over the frequency range ν = 420 − 540 GHz, targeting emission of the [C ii] line over redshifts 2.5 < z < 3.5 and several CO lines for z < 1. Cross-correlation with galaxy redshift catalogues isolates line emission from the large-scale structure at target redshifts. In this paper, we forecast the sensitivity for both the two-point and conditional one-point cross-correlation. We predict that EXCLAIM will detect both the [C ii]-QSO cross-power spectrum and the conditional voxel intensity distribution (CVID) at various redshifts under a broad range of [C ii] intensity models, allowing it to differentiate among these models in the literature. These forecasts for the power spectra include the effects of line interlopers and continuum foreground contamination. We then convert the joint [C ii] constraints from both the cross-power spectrum and the CVID into constraints on the [C ii] halo luminosity–mass relation $L_\mathrm{[C\, \small {II}]}(M)$ model parametersmore »and the star formation rate density (SFRD) from [C ii] emission. We also develop sensitivity estimates for CO, showing the ability to differentiate between models.

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  3. Abstract The Millimeter-wave Intensity Mapping Experiment (mmIME) recently reported a detection of excess spatial fluctuations at a wavelength of 3 mm, which can be attributed to unresolved emission of several CO rotational transitions between z ∼ 1 and 5. We study the implications of these data for the high-redshift interstellar medium using a suite of state-of-the-art semianalytic simulations that have successfully reproduced many other submillimeter line observations across the relevant redshift range. We find that the semianalytic predictions are mildly in tension with the mmIME result, with a predicted CO power ∼3.5 σ below what was observed. We explore some simple modifications to the models that could resolve this tension. Increasing the molecular gas abundance at the relevant redshifts to ∼10 8 M ⊙ Mpc −3 , a value well above that obtained from directly imaged sources, would resolve the discrepancy, as would assuming a CO–H 2 conversion factor α CO of ∼1.5 M ⊙ K −1 (km s −1 ) −1 pc 2 , a value somewhat lower than is commonly assumed. We go on to demonstrate that these conclusions are quite sensitive to the detailed assumptions of our simulations, highlighting the need for more careful modeling efforts asmore »more intensity mapping data become available.« less
  4. Abstract Submillimeter emission lines produced by the interstellar medium (ISM) are strong tracers of star formation and are some of the main targets of line intensity mapping (LIM) surveys. In this work we present an empirical multiline emission model that simultaneously covers the mean, scatter, and correlations of [C ii ], CO J = 1–0 to J = 5–4, and [C i ] lines in the redshift range 1 ≤ z ≤ 9. We assume that the galaxy ISM line emission luminosity versus halo mass relations can be described by double power laws with redshift-dependent lognormal scatter. The model parameters are then derived by fitting to the state-of-the-art semianalytic simulation results that have successfully reproduced multiple submillimeter line observations at 0 ≤ z ≲ 6. We cross-check the line emission statistics predicted by the semianalytic simulation and our empirical model, finding that at z ≥ 1 our model reproduces the simulated line intensities with fractional error less than about 10%. The fractional difference is less than 25% for the power spectra. Grounded on physically motivated and self-consistent galaxy simulations, this computationally efficient model will be helpful in forecasting ISM emission-line statistics for upcoming LIM surveys.
  5. Abstract Line-intensity mapping observations will find fluctuations of integrated line emission are attenuated by varying degrees at small scales due to the width of the line emission profiles. This attenuation may significantly impact estimates of astrophysical or cosmological quantities derived from measurements. We consider a theoretical treatment of the effect of line broadening on both the clustering and shot-noise components of the power spectrum of a generic line-intensity power spectrum using a halo model. We then consider possible simplifications to allow easier application in analysis, particularly in the context of inferences that require numerous, repeated, fast computations of model line-intensity signals across a large parameter space. For the CO Mapping Array Project and the CO(1–0) line-intensity field at z ∼ 3 serving as our primary case study, we expect a ∼10% attenuation of the spherically averaged power spectrum on average at relevant scales of k ≈ 0.2–0.3 Mpc −1 compared to ∼25% for the interferometric Millimetre-wave Intensity Mapping Experiment targeting shot noise from CO lines at z ∼ 1–5 at scales of k ≳ 1 Mpc −1 . We also consider the nature and amplitude of errors introduced by simplified treatments of line broadening and find that while an approximationmore »using a single effective velocity scale is sufficient for spherically averaged power spectra, a more careful treatment is necessary when considering other statistics such as higher multipoles of the anisotropic power spectrum or the voxel intensity distribution.« less
  6. Abstract We present the current state of models for the z ∼ 3 carbon monoxide (CO) line intensity signal targeted by the CO Mapping Array Project (COMAP) Pathfinder in the context of its early science results. Our fiducial model, relating dark matter halo properties to CO luminosities, informs parameter priors with empirical models of the galaxy–halo connection and previous CO (1–0) observations. The Pathfinder early science data spanning wavenumbers k = 0.051–0.62 Mpc −1 represent the first direct 3D constraint on the clustering component of the CO (1–0) power spectrum. Our 95% upper limit on the redshift-space clustering amplitude A clust ≲ 70 μ K 2 greatly improves on the indirect upper limit of 420 μ K 2 reported from the CO Power Spectrum Survey (COPSS) measurement at k ∼ 1 Mpc −1 . The COMAP limit excludes a subset of models from previous literature and constrains interpretation of the COPSS results, demonstrating the complementary nature of COMAP and interferometric CO surveys. Using line bias expectations from our priors, we also constrain the squared mean line intensity–bias product, Tb 2 ≲ 50 μ K 2 , and the cosmic molecular gas density, ρ H2 < 2.5 × 10 8 Mmore »⊙ Mpc −3 (95% upper limits). Based on early instrument performance and our current CO signal estimates, we forecast that the 5 yr Pathfinder campaign will detect the CO power spectrum with overall signal-to-noise ratio of 9–17. Between then and now, we also expect to detect the CO–galaxy cross-spectrum using overlapping galaxy survey data, enabling enhanced inferences of cosmic star formation and galaxy evolution history.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  7. Abstract The CO Mapping Array Project (COMAP) aims to use line-intensity mapping of carbon monoxide (CO) to trace the distribution and global properties of galaxies over cosmic time, back to the Epoch of Reionization (EoR). To validate the technologies and techniques needed for this goal, a Pathfinder instrument has been constructed and fielded. Sensitive to CO(1–0) emission from z = 2.4–3.4 and a fainter contribution from CO(2–1) at z = 6–8, the Pathfinder is surveying 12 deg 2 in a 5 yr observing campaign to detect the CO signal from z ∼ 3. Using data from the first 13 months of observing, we estimate P CO ( k ) = −2.7 ± 1.7 × 10 4 μ K 2 Mpc 3 on scales k = 0.051 −0.62 Mpc −1 , the first direct three-dimensional constraint on the clustering component of the CO(1–0) power spectrum. Based on these observations alone, we obtain a constraint on the amplitude of the clustering component (the squared mean CO line temperature bias product) of Tb 2 < 49 μ K 2 , nearly an order-of-magnitude improvement on the previous best measurement. These constraints allow us to rule out two models from the literature. We forecastmore »a detection of the power spectrum after 5 yr with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) 9–17. Cross-correlation with an overlapping galaxy survey will yield a detection of the CO–galaxy power spectrum with S/N of 19. We are also conducting a 30 GHz survey of the Galactic plane and present a preliminary map. Looking to the future of COMAP, we examine the prospects for future phases of the experiment to detect and characterize the CO signal from the EoR.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  8. Abstract

    We introduce COMAP-EoR, the next generation of the Carbon Monoxide Mapping Array Project aimed at extending CO intensity mapping to the Epoch of Reionization. COMAP-EoRsupplements the existing 30 GHz COMAP Pathfinder with two additional 30 GHz instruments and a new 16 GHz receiver. This combination of frequencies will be able to simultaneously map CO(1–0) and CO(2–1) at reionization redshifts (z∼ 5–8) in addition to providing a significant boost to thez∼ 3 sensitivity of the Pathfinder. We examine a set of existing models of the EoR CO signal, and find power spectra spanning several orders of magnitude, highlighting our extreme ignorance about this period of cosmic history and the value of the COMAP-EoRmeasurement. We carry out the most detailed forecast to date of an intensity mapping cross correlation, and find that five out of the six models we consider yield signal to noise ratios (S/Ns) ≳ 20 for COMAP-EoR, with the brightest reaching a S/N above 400. We show that, for these models, COMAP-EoRcan make a detailed measurement of the cosmic molecular gas history fromz∼ 2–8, as well as probe the population of faint, star-forming galaxies predicted by these models to be undetectable by traditional surveys. We show that, formore »the single model that does not predict numerous faint emitters, a COMAP-EoR-type measurement is required to rule out their existence. We briefly explore prospects for a third-generation Expanded Reionization Array (COMAP-ERA) capable of detecting the faintest models and characterizing the brightest signals in extreme detail.

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  9. Abstract

    We present the power spectrum methodology used for the first-season COMAP analysis, and assess the quality of the current data set. The main results are derived through the Feed–Feed Pseudo-Cross-Spectrum (FPXS) method, which is a robust estimator with respect to both noise modeling errors and experimental systematics. We use effective transfer functions to take into account the effects of instrumental beam smoothing and various filter operations applied during the low-level data processing. The power spectra estimated in this way have allowed us to identify a systematic error associated with one of our two scanning strategies, believed to be due to residual ground or atmospheric contamination. We omit these data from our analysis and no longer use this scanning technique for observations. We present the power spectra from our first season of observing, and demonstrate that the uncertainties are integrating as expected for uncorrelated noise, with any residual systematics suppressed to a level below the noise. Using the FPXS method, and combining data on scalesk= 0.051–0.62 Mpc−1, we estimatePCO(k) = −2. 7 ± 1.7 × 104μK2Mpc3, the first direct 3D constraint on the clustering component of the CO(1–0) power spectrum in the literature.

  10. Abstract

    We present early results from the CO Mapping Array Project (COMAP) Galactic Plane Survey conducted between 2019 June and 2021 April, spanning 20° << 40° in Galactic longitude and ∣b∣ < 1.°5 in Galactic latitude with an angular resolution of 4.′5. We present initial results from the first part of the survey, including the diffuse emission and spectral energy distributions of Hiiregions and supernova remnants (SNRs). Using low- and high-frequency surveys to constrain free–free and thermal dust emission contributions, we find evidence of excess flux density at 30 GHz in six regions, which we interpret as anomalous microwave emission. Furthermore we model ultracompact Hiicontributions using data from the 5 GHz CORNISH catalog and reject these as the cause of the 30 GHz excess. Six known SNRs are detected at 30 GHz, and we measure spectral indices consistent with the literature or show evidence of steepening. The flux density of the SNR W44 at 30 GHz is consistent with a power-law extrapolation from lower frequencies with no indication of spectral steepening in contrast with recent results from the Sardinia Radio Telescope. We also extract five hydrogen radio recombination lines (RRLs) to map the warm ionized gas, which can be usedmore »to estimate electron temperatures or to constrain continuum free–free emission. The full COMAP Galactic Plane Survey, to be released in 2023/2024, will span∼ 20°–220° and will be the first large-scale radio continuum and RRL survey at 30 GHz with 4.′5 resolution.

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