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    We present a study of the co-evolution of a population of primordial star-forming minihaloes at Cosmic Dawn. In this study, we highlight the influence of individual Population III stars on the ability of nearby minihaloes to form sufficient molecular hydrogen to undergo star formation. In the absence of radiation, we find the minimum halo mass required to bring about collapse to be ∼105 M⊙, this increases to ∼106 M⊙ after two stars have formed. We find an inverse relationship between halo mass and the time required for it to recover its molecular gas after being disrupted by radiation from a nearby star. We also take advantage of the extremely high resolution to investigate the effects of major and minor mergers on the gas content of star-forming minihaloes. Contrary to previous claims of fallback of supernova ejecta, we find minihaloes evacuated after hosting Pop III stars primarily recover gas through mergers with undisturbed haloes. We identify an intriguing type of major merger between recently evacuated haloes and gas-rich ones, finding that these ‘mixed’ mergers accelerate star formation instead of suppressing it like their low-redshift counterparts. We attribute this to the gas-poor nature of one of the merging haloes resulting in no significant rise in temperature or turbulence and instead inducing a rapid increase in central density and hydrostatic pressure. This constitutes a novel formation pathway for Pop III stars and establishes major mergers as potentially the primary source of gas, thus redefining the role of major mergers at this epoch.

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  2. Abstract

    The circumgalactic medium (CGM) is often assumed to exist in or near hydrostatic equilibrium, with the regulation of accretion and the effects of feedback treated as perturbations to a stable balance between gravity and thermal pressure. We investigate global hydrostatic equilibrium in the CGM using four highly resolvedL*galaxies from the Figuring Out Gas & Galaxies in Enzo (FOGGIE) project. The FOGGIE simulations were specifically targeted at fine spatial and mass resolution in the CGM (Δx≲ 1 kpch−1andM≃ 200M). We develop a new analysis framework that calculates the forces provided by thermal pressure gradients, turbulent pressure gradients, ram pressure gradients of large-scale radial bulk flows, centrifugal rotation, and gravity acting on the gas in the CGM. Thermal and turbulent pressure gradients vary strongly on scales of ≲5 kpc throughout the CGM. Thermal pressure gradients provide the main supporting force only beyond ∼0.25R200, or ∼50 kpc atz= 0. Within ∼0.25R200, turbulent pressure gradients and rotational support provide stronger forces than thermal pressure. More generally, we find that global equilibrium models are neither appropriate nor predictive for the small scales probed by absorption line observations of the CGM. Local conditions generally cannot be derived by assuming a global equilibrium, but an emergent global equilibrium balancing radially inward and outward forces is obtained when averaging over the nonequilibrium local conditions on large scales in space and time. Approximate hydrostatic equilibrium holds only at large distances from galaxies, even when averaging out small-scale variations.

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  3. Abstract

    This study analyzes 18 simulated galaxies run using three prescriptions for stellar feedback, including thermal, kinetic, and interstellar medium pre-processing feedback mechanisms. Each simulation set models one of these mechanisms with 6 distinct galaxies, with varyingMviratz = 0. The morphological and thermodynamic quantities and distributions, as well as star formation histories, are compared to understand the impact of each stellar feedback mechanism. We find that the prescription for stellar feedback makes a significant impact on the behavior of galaxies, and observe systematic trends within each simulation and across mass ranges. Specifically, kinetic feedback results in no formation of a disk structure and delayed star formation, and pre-processing of the interstellar medium results in delayed star formation as compared to the thermal feedback mechanisms.

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  4. Abstract The classical definition of the virial temperature of a galaxy halo excludes a fundamental contribution to the energy partition of the halo: the kinetic energy of nonthermal gas motions. Using simulations of low-redshift, ∼ L * galaxies from the Figuring Out Gas & Galaxies In Enzo (FOGGIE) project that are optimized to resolve low-density gas, we show that the kinetic energy of nonthermal motions is roughly equal to the energy of thermal motions. The simulated FOGGIE halos have ∼2× lower bulk temperatures than expected from a classical virial equilibrium, owing to significant nonthermal kinetic energy that is formally excluded from the definition of T vir . We explicitly derive a modified virial temperature including nonthermal gas motions that provides a more accurate description of gas temperatures for simulated halos in virial equilibrium. Strong bursts of stellar feedback drive the simulated FOGGIE halos out of virial equilibrium, but the halo gas cannot be accurately described by the standard virial temperature even when in virial equilibrium. Compared to the standard virial temperature, the cooler modified virial temperature implies other effects on halo gas: (i) the thermal gas pressure is lower, (ii) radiative cooling is more efficient, (iii) O vi absorbing gas that traces the virial temperature may be prevalent in halos of a higher mass than expected, (iv) gas mass estimates from X-ray surface brightness profiles may be incorrect, and (v) turbulent motions make an important contribution to the energy balance of a galaxy halo. 
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  5. A bstract The NA62 experiment at CERN targets the measurement of the ultra-rare $$ {K}^{+}\to {\pi}^{+}\nu \overline{\nu} $$ K + → π + ν ν ¯ decay, and carries out a broad physics programme that includes probes for symmetry violations and searches for exotic particles. Data were collected in 2016–2018 using a multi-level trigger system, which is described highlighting performance studies based on 2018 data. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  6. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024